Advertisement

Psychopharmacology in Transplant Patients

  • Martha C. GamboaEmail author
  • Stephen J. Ferrando
Chapter

Abstract

Patients undergoing transplantation experience higher incidences of depression, anxiety, and cognitive disorders. In addition, substance use disorders might be more common and pertinent in some organ transplant candidates and recipients. Organ dysfunction, multiple comorbidities, and concurrent medications influence effects and metabolism of psychotropic medications needed to treat patients. On the other hand, psychotropic medications might cause side effects that are relevant and important to appreciate in patients with end-stage organ disease and after transplantation. Finally, medications used in transplant medicine, such as immunosuppressants, are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric side effects. It is important for treatment providers to appreciate these important considerations, and thus this chapter covers above issues.

Keywords

Psychopharmacology Transplant psychopharmacology Drug-drug interactions Immunosuppressant 

References

  1. 1.
    Dew MA, DiMartini AF, DeVito Dabbs AJ, Fox KR, Myaskovsky L, Posluszny DM, et al. Onset and risk factors for anxiety and depression during the first 2 years after lung transplantation. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012;34(2):127–38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dew MA, Kormos RL, DiMartini AF, Switzer GE, Schulberg HC, Roth LH, et al. Prevalence and risk of depression and anxiety-related disorders during the first three years after heart transplantation. Psychosomatics. 2001;42(4):300–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dew MA, Rosenberger EM, Myaskovsky L, DiMartini AF, DeVito Dabbs AJ, Posluszny DM, et al. Depression and anxiety as risk factors for morbidity and mortality after organ transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transplantation. 2015;100(5):988–1003.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smith PJ, Rivelli S, Waters A, Reynolds J, Hoyle A, Flowers M, et al. Neurocognitive changes after lung transplantation. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11(10):1520–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smith PJ, Rivelli SK, Waters AM, Hoyle A, Durheim MT, Reynolds JM, et al. Delirium affects length of hospital stay after lung transplantation. J Crit Care. 2015;30(1):126–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Basinski JR, Alfano CM, Katon WJ, Syrjala KL, Fann JR. Impact of delirium on distress, health-related quality of life, and cognition 6 months and 1 year after hematopoietic cell transplant. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant J Am Soc Blood Marrow Transplant. [Clinical Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2010;16(6):824–31.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    DiMartini A, Crone C, Fireman M, Dew MA. Psychiatric aspects of organ transplantation in critical care. Crit care Clin. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Review]. 2008;24(4):949–81, x.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rang H, Ritter R, Flower RJ, Rang GH. Drug metabolism and elimination. Rang and Dale’s pharmacology. Livingstone: Elsevier Churchill; 2016. p. 116–24.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Enright EF, Gahan CG, Joyce SA, Griffin BT. The Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Drug Metabolism and Clinical Outcome. Yale J Biol Med. [Review Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2016;89(3):375–82.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Klaassen CD, Cui JY. Review: mechanisms of how the intestinal microbiota alters the effects of drugs and bile acids. Drug Metab Dispos Biol Fate Chem. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Review]. 2015;43(10):1505–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dreisbach AW, Lertora JJ. The effect of chronic renal failure on hepatic drug metabolism and drug disposition. Semin Dial. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. Review]. 2003;16(1):45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holford NG. Pharmacokinetics & pharmacodynamics: rational dosing & the time course of drug action. In: Katzung BG, Trevor AJ, editors. Basic and clinical pharmacology. 13th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2015.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lake DF, Briggs AD. Immunopharmacology. In: Katzung BG, Trevor AJ, editors. Basic and clinical pharmacology. 13th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2015.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Muller J, Keiser M, Drozdzik M, Oswald S. Expression, regulation and function of intestinal drug transporters: an update. Biol Chem. [Review Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2017;398(2):175–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Levitsky J, Goldberg D, Smith AR, Mansfield SA, Gillespie BW, Merion RM, et al. Acute rejection increases risk of graft failure and death in recent liver transplant recipients. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol Off Clin Pract J Am Gastroenterol Assoc. [Observational Study]. 2017;15(4):584–93e2.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fireman M, DiMartini A, Crone C. Organ transplantation. In: Ferrando S, Levenson JL, Owen JA, editors. Clinical manual of psychopharmacology in medically ill. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2010. p. 597–631.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu GS, Cruz RJ Jr, Cai JC. Acute antibody-mediated rejection after intestinal transplantation. World J Transplant. 2016;6(4):719–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lake J. Liver transplantation. In: Friedman S, editor. Current diagnosis and treatmetn in gastroenterology. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2003. p. 813–34.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fireman M, DiMartini AF, Armstrong SC, Cozza KL. Immunosuppressants. Psychosomatics. [Review]. 2004;45(4):354–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wynn G. Transplant surgery and rheumatology. Immunosuppressants. In: Wynn G, Oesterheld J, Gozza K, Armstrong S, editors. Clinical manual of drug interaction principles for medical practice. Washingon, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; 2009. p. 461–72.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dubovsky AN, Arvikar S, Stern TA, Axelrod L. The neuropsychiatric complications of glucocorticoid use: steroid psychosis revisited. Psychosomatics. [Review]. 2012;53(2):103–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wolkowitz OM. Long-lasting behavioral changes following prednisone withdrawal. JAMA. [Case Reports Letter]. 1989;261(12):1731–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fardet L, Nazareth I, Whitaker HJ, Petersen I. Severe neuropsychiatric outcomes following discontinuation of long-term glucocorticoid therapy: a cohort study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74(4):e281–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    West S, Kenedi C. Strategies to prevent the neuropsychiatric side-effects of corticosteroids: a case report and review of the literature. Curr Opin Organ Transplant.. [Case Reports Review]. 2014;19(2):201–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Goldman LS, Goveas J. Olanzapine treatment of corticosteroid-induced mood disorders. Psychosomatics. [Case Reports]. 2002;43(6):495–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roxanas MG, Hunt GE. Rapid reversal of corticosteroid-induced mania with sodium valproate: a case series of 20 patients. Psychosomatics. 2012;53(6):575–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Viswanathan R, Glickman L. Clonazepam in the treatment of steroid-induced mania in a patient after renal transplantation. N Engl J Med.. [Case Reports Letter]. 1989;320(5):319–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sun X, Wu Y, Chen B, Zhang Z, Zhou W, Tong Y, et al. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) facilitates neuronal apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. J Biol Chem. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2011;286(11):9049–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Trzepacz PT, DiMartini A, Tringali R. Psychopharmacologic issues in organ transplantation. Part I: Pharmacokinetics in organ failure and psychiatric aspects of immunosuppressants and anti-infectious agents. Psychosomatics. [Review]. 1993;34(3):199–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Song T, Rao Z, Tan Q, Qiu Y, Liu J, Huang Z, et al. Calcineurin inhibitors associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in solid organ transplantation: report of 2 cases and literature review. Medicine. [Case Reports Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review]. 2016;95(14):e3173.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rosso L, Nosotti M, Mendogni P, Palleschi A, Tosi D, Montoli M, et al. Lung transplantation and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case series. Transplant Proc. 2012;44(7):2022–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Smith PJ, Stonerock GL, Ingle KK, Saulino CK, Hoffman B, Wasserman B, et al. Neurological sequelae and clinical outcomes after lung transplantation. Transplant Direct. 2018;4(4):e353.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen S, Hu J, Xu L, Brandon D, Yu J, Zhang J. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome after transplantation: a review. Mol Neurobiol. [Review]. 2016;53(10):6897–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schusse CM, Peterson AL, Caplan JP. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Psychosomatics. [Case Reports Review]. 2013;54(3):205–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hayes D Jr, Adler B, Turner TL, Mansour HM. Alternative tacrolimus and sirolimus regimen associated with rapid resolution of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome after lung transplantation. Pediatr Neurol. [Case Reports]. 2014;50(3):272–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Curtis JJ, Jones P, Barbeito R. Large within-day variation in cyclosporine absorption: circadian variation or food effect? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol CJASN. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2006;1(3):462–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Aronson J. Meyler's side effects of herbal medicines. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 2008.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Finsterer J, Ohnsorge P. Influence of mitochondrion-toxic agents on the cardiovascular system. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol RTP [Review]. 2013;67(3):434–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hodak SP, Moubarak JB, Rodriguez I, Gelfand MC, Alijani MR, Tracy CM. QT prolongation and near fatal cardiac arrhythmia after intravenous tacrolimus administration: a case report. Transplantation. [Case Reports Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 1998;66(4):535–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ikitimur B, Cosansu K, Karadag B, Cakmak HA, Avci BK, Erturk E, et al. Long-term impact of different immunosuppressive drugs on QT and PR intervals in renal transplant patients. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol Off J Int Soc Holter Noninvasive Electrocardiol Inc. 2015;20(5):426–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Beach SR, Celano CM, Noseworthy PA, Januzzi JL, Huffman JC. QTc prolongation, torsades de pointes, and psychotropic medications. Psychosomatics. [Review]. 2013;54(1):1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bradley J, Watson C. mTOR inhibitors: Sirolimus and everolimus. In: Morris P, Knechtle S, editors. Kidney transplantation: principles and practice. London: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014. p. 267–86.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Atgam (lymphocyte immune globulin, antithymocyte globulin [equine]) [prescribing information]. New York: Pfizer, Inc; 2015.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Thymoglobulin (antithymocyte glbolung [rabbit] package insert. Cambridge, MA: Genzyme Corportaion; 2016.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Simulect (basiliximab) package insert. East Hanover: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; 2005.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Campath (alemtuzumab) package insert. Cambridge, MA: Genzyme Corporation; 2014.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lemtrada (alemtuzumab) injection package insert. Camridge, MA: Genzyme Corporation; 2017.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rituxan (rituximab) package insert. South San Francisco: Genentech, Inc.; 2013.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Myfortic (mycophenolate sodium) [prescribing information]. East Hanover: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; 2015.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Azathioprine.Lexicomp Online®, Lexi-Drugs. Hudson: Lexi-Comp, Inc.; 2017.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gruessner A, Jie T, Papas K, Porubsky M, Rana A, Smith M, et al. Transplantation. In: Bruncardi F, Andersen D, Billiar T, Dunn D, Hunter J, Matthews J, et al., editors. Schwartz's principles of surgery. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2015.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    O'Connor CM, Jiang W, Kuchibhatla M, Silva SG, Cuffe MS, Callwood DD, et al. Safety and efficacy of sertraline for depression in patients with heart failure: results of the SADHART-CHF (Sertraline against depression and heart disease in chronic heart failure) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. [Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. 2010;56(9):692–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kalender B, Ozdemir AC, Yalug I, Dervisoglu E. Antidepressant treatment increases quality of life in patients with chronic renal failure. Ren Fail. 2007;29(7):817–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gottlieb SS, Kop WJ, Thomas SA, Katzen S, Vesely MR, Greenberg N, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of controlled-release paroxetine on depression and quality of life in chronic heart failure. Am Heart J. [Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]. 2007;153(5):868–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jeong BO, Kim SW, Kim SY, Kim JM, Shin IS, Yoon JS. Use of serotonergic antidepressants and bleeding risk in patients undergoing surgery. Psychosomatics. [Review]. 2014;55(3):213–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Eckersley MJ, Sepehripour AH, Casula R, Punjabi P, Athanasiou T. Do selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the risk of bleeding or mortality following coronary artery bypass graft surgery? A meta-analysis of observational studies. Perfusion. 2018;1:267659118765933.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Varela Pinon M, Adan-Manes J. Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced hyponatremia: clinical implications and therapeutic alternatives. Clin Neuropharmacol. [Case Reports]. 2017;40(4):177–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    De Picker L, Van Den Eede F, Dumont G, Moorkens G, Sabbe BG. Antidepressants and the risk of hyponatremia: a class-by-class review of literature. Psychosomatics. [Review]. 2014;55(6):536–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tsapakis EM, Gamie Z, Tran GT, Adshead S, Lampard A, Mantalaris A, et al. The adverse skeletal effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Eur Psychiatry J Assoc Eur Psychiatr. [Review]. 2012;27(3):156–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sher Y, Zimbrean P. Psychiatric aspects of organ transplantation in critical care: an update. Crit Care Clin. [Review]. 2017;33(3):659–79.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    DeBattista C. Antidepressant agents. In: Katzung B, Trevor A, editors. Basic and clinical pharmacology. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2015.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Crewe HK, Lennard MS, Tucker GT, Woods FR, Haddock RE. The effect of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors on cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) activity in human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. [Comparative Study]. 1992;34(3):262–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ozdemir V, Naranjo CA, Herrmann N, Shulman RW, Sellers EM, Reed K, et al. The extent and determinants of changes in CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 activities with therapeutic doses of sertraline. J ClinPsychopharmacol. [Comparative Study Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 1998;18(1):55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Preskorn SH, Alderman J, Greenblatt DJ, Horst WD. Sertraline does not inhibit cytochrome P450 3A-mediated drug metabolism in vivo. Psychopharmacol Bull [Comparative Study]. 1997;33(4):659–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lill J, Bauer LA, Horn JR, Hansten PD. Cyclosporine-drug interactions and the influence of patient age. Am J Health Syst Pharm AJHP Off J Am Soc Health Syst Pharm. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2000;57(17):1579–84.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mayo MJ, Handem I, Saldana S, Jacobe H, Getachew Y, Rush AJ. Sertraline as a first-line treatment for cholestatic pruritus. Hepatology. [Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2007;45(3):666–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Smoller JW, Pollack MH, Systrom D, Kradin RL. Sertraline effects on dyspnea in patients with obstructive airways disease. Psychosomatics. [Case Reports]. 1998;39(1):24–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Yalcin AU, Sahin G, Erol M, Bal C. Sertraline hydrochloride treatment for patients with hemodialysis hypotension. Blood Purif. [Clinical Trial]. 2002;20(2):150–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Crone CC, Gabriel GM. Treatment of anxiety and depression in transplant patients: pharmacokinetic considerations. Clin Pharmacokinet. [Comparative Study Review]. 2004;43(6):361–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sandson NB, Armstrong SC, Cozza KL. An overview of psychotropic drug-drug interactions. Psychosomatics. [Review]. 2005;46(5):464–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    FDA Drug Safety Communication: revised recommendations for Celexa (citalopram hydrobromide) related to a potential risk of abnormal heart rhythms with high doses. U.S. Food and Drug Administration; 2012 [cited 2018 5/14/2018]; Available from: https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm297391.htm.
  72. 72.
    Gerlach LB, Kales HC, Maust DT, Chiang C, Stano C, Choe HM, et al. Unintended consequences of adjusting citalopram prescriptions following the 2011 FDA warning. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Off J Am Assoc Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017;25(4):407–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Newey CR, Khawam E, Coffman K. Two cases of serotonin syndrome with venlafaxine and calcineurin inhibitors. Psychosomatics. [Case Reports]. 2011;52(3):286–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Desvenlafaxine. Lexicomp® Online, Lexi-Drugs. Hudson: Lexi-Comp, Inc; [cited 2017 28 Dec]; Available from: https://online.lexi.com.
  75. 75.
    Voican CS, Corruble E, Naveau S, Perlemuter G. Antidepressant-induced liver injury: a review for clinicians. Am J Psychiatry. [Review]. 2014;171(4):404–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wernicke J, Pangallo B, Wang F, Murray I, Henck JW, Knadler MP, et al. Hepatic effects of duloxetine-I: non-clinical and clinical trial data. Curr Drug Saf. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review]. 2008;3(2):132–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hartmann PM. Mirtazapine: a newer antidepressant. Am Fam Physician. [Review]. 1999;59(1):159–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Jamilloux Y, Kerever S, Ferry T, Broussolle C, Honnorat J, Seve P. Treatment of progressive multifocal Leukoencephalopathy With Mirtazapine. Clin Drug Investig. [Review]. 2016;36(10):783–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Boinpally R, Alcorn H, Adams MH, Longstreth J, Edwards J. Pharmacokinetics of vilazodone in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. Clin Drug Investig. [Clinical Trial, Phase I Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2013;33(3):199–206.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Owen JR, Nemeroff CB. New antidepressants and the cytochrome P450 system: focus on venlafaxine, nefazodone, and mirtazapine. Depress Anxiety. [Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. Review]. 1998;7(Suppl 1):24–32.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nefazodone hydrochloride tablet package insert. Jacksonville: Ranbaxy Pharmaceutical Inc.; 2008.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Livingston MG, Livingston HM. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. An update on drug interactions. Drug Saf. [Review]. 1996;14(4):219–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Borrelli F, Izzo AA. Herb-drug interactions with St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum): an update on clinical observations. AAPS J. [Review]. 2009;11(4):710–27.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Moschella C, Jaber BL. Interaction between cyclosporine and Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) after organ transplantation. Am J kidney Dis Off J Natl Kidney Found. [Case Reports]. 2001;38(5):1105–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Turton-Weeks SM, Barone GW, Gurley BJ, Ketel BL, Lightfoot ML, Abul-Ezz SR. St John's wort: a hidden risk for transplant patients. Prog Transplant. [Case Reports]. 2001;11(2):116–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hardy SE. Methylphenidate for the treatment of depressive symptoms, including fatigue and apathy, in medically ill older adults and terminally ill adults. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review]. 2009;7(1):34–59.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    FDA Drug Safety Communication: safety review update of medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and young adults. U.S. Food & Drug Administration2011 [cited 2018 May 13]; Available from: https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm277770.htm.
  88. 88.
    Plutchik L, Snyder S, Drooker M, Chodoff L, Sheiner P. Methylphenidate in post liver transplant patients. Psychosomatics. [Case Reports]. 1998;39(2):118–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tomlinson D, Robinson PD, Oberoi S, Cataudella D, Culos-Reed N, Davis H, et al. Pharmacologic interventions for fatigue in cancer and transplantation: a meta-analysis. Curr Oncol. [Review]. 2018;25(2):e152–e67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Corchs F, Teng CT. Amphetamine, catatonic depression, and heart transplant: a case report. Revista Bras Psiquiatr. [Case Reports Letter]. 2010;32(3):324–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tong HY, Diaz C, Collantes E, Medrano N, Borobia AM, Jara P, et al. Liver transplant in a patient under methylphenidate therapy: a case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Pediatr. 2015;2015:437298.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dextroamphetamine. Clinical Key [cited 2018 Jan 4]; Available from: http://www.clinicalkey.com.
  93. 93.
    Murillo-Rodriguez E, Barciela Veras A, Barbosa Rocha N, Budde H, Machado S. An overview of the clinical uses, pharmacology, and safety of Modafinil. ACS Chem Neurosci. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 2018;9(2):151–8.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Desai HD, Seabolt J, Jann MW. Smoking in patients receiving psychotropic medications: a pharmacokinetic perspective. CNS Drugs. [Review]. 2001;15(6):469–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Eison AS, Temple DL, Jr. Buspirone: review of its pharmacology and current perspectives on its mechanism of action. Am J Med. [Review]. 1986;80(3B):1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Meltzer H. Antipsychotic agents & lithium. In: Katzung B, Trevor A, editors. Basic and clinical pharmacology. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2015.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    de Bartolomeis A, Tomasetti C, Iasevoli F. Update on the Mechanism of Action of Aripiprazole: Translational Insights into Antipsychotic Strategies Beyond Dopamine Receptor Antagonism. CNS Drugs. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review]. 2015;29(9):773–99.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zyprexa (olanzapine, all formulations) package insert. Indianapolis: Eli Lilly and company; 2017.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Quetiapine. [cited 2018 Jan 5]; Available from: http://clinicalkey.com.
  100. 100.
    Risperidone. Lexicomp Online ®. Lexi-drugs®. Hudson: Lexicomp, Inc; [cited 2018 Jan 5].Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Citrome L. A review of the pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability of recently approved and upcoming oral antipsychotics: an evidence-based medicine approach. CNS Drugs. [Review]. 2013;27(11):879–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Greenblatt HK, Greenblatt DJ. Gabapentin and pregabalin for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Clinical Pharmacol Drug Dev. [Editorial]. 2018;7(3):228–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Leung JG, Hall-Flavin D, Nelson S, Schmidt KA, Schak KM. The role of gabapentin in the management of alcohol withdrawal and dependence. Ann Pharmacother. [Review]. 2015;49(8):897–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Leung JG, Rakocevic DB, Allen ND, Handler EM, Perossa BA, Borreggine KL, et al. Use of a gabapentin protocol for the Management of Alcohol Withdrawal: a preliminary experience expanding from the consultation-liaison psychiatry service. Psychosomatics. 2018;21Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Maldonado JR. Novel Algorithms for the Prophylaxis and Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndromes-Beyond Benzodiazepines. Criti Care Clin. [Review]. 2017;33(3):559–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Pande AC, Davidson JR, Jefferson JW, Janney CA, Katzelnick DJ, Weisler RH, et al. Treatment of social phobia with gabapentin: a placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. [Clinical Trial Multicenter Study Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. 1999;19(4):341–8.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sher Y, Miller AC, Lolak S, Ament A, Maldonado JR. Adjunctive valproic acid in management-refractory hyperactive delirium: a case series and rationale. J Neuropsychiatr Clin Neurosci. 2015:appineuropsych14080190.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Sher Y, Miller Cramer AC, Ament A, Lolak S, Maldonado JR. Valproic acid for treatment of hyperactive or mixed delirium: rationale and literature review. Psychosomatics. [Review]. 2015;56(6):615–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Haroldson JA, Kramer LE, Wolff DL, Lake KD. Elevated free fractions of valproic acid in a heart transplant patient with hypoalbuminemia. Ann Pharmacother. [Case Reports]. 2000;34(2):183–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Verrotti A, Scaparrotta A, Grosso S, Chiarelli F, Coppola G. Anticonvulsant drugs and hematological disease. Neurol Sci Off J Ital Neurol Soc Ital Soc Clin Neurophysiol. [Review]. 2014;35(7):983–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Guglielmo R, Martinotti G, Quatrale M, Ioime L, Kadilli I, Di Nicola M, et al. Topiramate in alcohol use disorders: review and update. CNS Drugs. [Review]. 2015;29(5):383–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    DasGupta K, Jefferson JW. The use of lithium in the medically ill. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. [Review]. 1990;12(2):83–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Acamprosate [prescribing information]. Morgantown: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc; 2015.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Moreels S, Neyrinck A, Desmet W. Intractable hypotension and myocardial ischaemia induced by co-ingestion of ethanol and disulfiram. Acta Cardiol. [Case Reports]. 2012;67(4):491–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jeronimo A, Meira C, Amaro A, Campello GC, Granja C. Cardiogenic shock caused by disulfiram. Arq Bras Cardiol. [Case Reports]. 2009;92(3):e16–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mohanty SR, LaBrecque DR, Mitros FA, Layden TJ. Liver transplantation for disulfiram-induced fulminant hepatic failure. J Clin Gastroenterol. [Case Reports Review]. 2004;38(3):292–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Garbutt JC. Efficacy and tolerability of naltrexone in the management of alcohol dependence. Curr Pharm Des [Review]. 2010;16(19):2091–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Westermeyer J, Adabag S, Anand V, Thuras P, Yoon G, Batres YCT. Methadone maintenance dose/weight ratio, long QTc, and EKG screening. Am J Addict. 2016;25(6):499–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Schumacher M, Basbaum A, Way W. Opioid analgesics & antagonists. In: Katzung B, Trevor A, editors. Basic and clinical pharmacology. New Yok: McGraw-Hill; 2015.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Xia ZQ, Chen SQ, Yao X, Xie CB, Wen SH, Liu KX. Clinical benefits of dexmedetomidine versus propofol in adult intensive care unit patients: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Surg Res. [Comparative Study Meta-Analysis Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review]. 2013;185(2):833–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Maldonado JR, Wysong A, van der Starre PJ, Block T, Miller C, Reitz BA. Dexmedetomidine and the reduction of postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery. Psychosomatics. 2009;50(3):206–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Xu G, Li LL, Sun ZT, Zhang W, Han XP. Effects of Dexmedetomidine on postoperative cognitive dysfunction and serum levels of b-amyloid and neuronal microtubule-associated protein in orthotopic liver transplantation patients. Ann transplant. [Randomized Controlled Trial]. 2016;21:508–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesNew York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA

Personalised recommendations