Advertisement

Translanguaging and Hybrid Spaces: Boundaries and beyond in North Central Arnhem Land

  • Jill VaughanEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Multilingual Education book series (MULT, volume 28)

Abstract

This chapter explores how speakers in Maningrida, a linguistically diverse Indigenous community in northern Australia, negotiate and evaluate their language practices within ‘hybrid spaces’ (i.e. spaces shaped by the interaction of diverse groups, institutions and ways of speaking). The analysis draws on data from two settings – a public school event, and a football match – and I consider the ways in which a translanguaging lens may provide insights into the interactional and socio-psychological realities of lived multilingualism in Maningrida. The major focus of the chapter pertains to Burarra/English mixing. I discuss the nature and functions of this language practice, and note that while speakers appear to ‘soft assemble’ their linguistic resources to fit the communicative situation at hand, there are also observable constraints exerted by the morphosyntax of the contributing codes. This practice are situated against the backdrop of long-standing multilingualism and language ideologies in the Arnhem Land region. The chapter evaluates translanguaging as a possible useful addition to the nomenclatural and analytical toolbox of researchers in the Australian Indigenous context, and as an important step towards decolonising understandings of local language practice, and further provides critiques and suggestions for strengthening the model’s descriptive potential.

Keywords

Translanguaging Indigenous Australia Burarra Hybrid space Language ideology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Sincere thanks to Maningrida community, and especially to Abigail Carter, Doreen Jinggarrabarra, Cindy Jin-marabynana, Rebecca Baker, Joseph Diddo, Alistair James, Stanley Djalarra Rankin, Mason Scholes and Jessie Webb. Thanks also to Margaret Carew, Felicity Meakins, Ruth Singer, Rebecca Green and Gillian Wigglesworth for their helpful conversations, to two anonymous reviewers for their time and their most constructive insights, and to Gerardo Mazzaferro for initiating this volume. This work has been funded since 2015 by the ARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language (C.I. Felicity Meakins, University of Queensland), the Linguistic Complexity in the Individual and Society project (C.I. Terje Lohndal) at the Norwegian University for Science and Technology, and a University of Melbourne Early Career Researcher Grant (C.I. Jill Vaughan).

References

  1. Adone, D., & Maypilama, E. (2014). A grammar sketch of Yolŋu sign language. Munich: Lincom Europe.Google Scholar
  2. Agnihotri, R. K. (1995). Multilingualism as a classroom resource. In K. Heugh, A. Siegrühn, & P. Plüddemann (Eds.), Multilingual education for South Africa (pp. 3–7). Johannesburg: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (Rev ed.). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  4. Angelo, D., & Carter, N. (2015). Schooling within shifting langscapes: Educational responses in complex indigenous language contact ecologies. In A. Yiakoumetti (Ed.), Multilingualism and language in education: Current sociolinguistic and pedagogical perspectives from commonwealth countries (pp. 119–142). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Auer, P. (1999). From codeswitching via language mixing to fused lects: Toward a dynamic typology of bilingual speech. Journal of Bilingualism, 3(4), 309–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, B. (2007). Heteroglossia and boundaries. In M. Heller (Ed.), Bilingualism: A social approach (pp. 257–274). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baynham, M., Bradley, J., Callaghan, J., Hanusova, J., Moore, E., & Simpson, J. (2017). Transformations through sport: The case of capoeira and basketball (WP. 22). Retrieved from: http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/generic/tlang/index.aspx
  8. Bhabha, H. (1994). The location of culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Blackledge, A., Creese, A., & Hu, R. (2017). Translanguaging, volleyball and social life (WP. 19). Retrieved from: http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/generic/tlang/index.aspx
  10. Blommaert, J. (2013). Ethnography, superdiversity and linguistic landscapes: Chronicles of complexity. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice (R. Nice, Trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Butt, M., & Geuder, W. (2001). On the (semi)lexical status of light verbs. In N. Corver & H. van Riemsdijk (Eds.), Semi-lexical categories: The function of content words and the content of function words (pp. 323–370). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  13. Canagarajah, S. (Ed.). (2005). Reclaiming the local in language policy and practice. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  14. Canagarajah, S. (2011). Translanguaging in the classroom: Emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review, 2(1), 1–28.Google Scholar
  15. Carew, M. (2016). Gun-ngaypa Rrawa ‘My Country’: Intercultural alliances in language research (Doctoral dissertation). Melbourne: Monash University. Retrieved from http://eprints.batchelor.edu.au/549/
  16. Carew, M. (2017). Gun-nartpa grammar. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  17. Carew, M., & Green, J. (2017, August 28–30). Australian indigenous sign languages in multilingual contact zones. Paper presented at the International conference on minority languages, Jyväskylä, Finland.Google Scholar
  18. Chomsky, N. (1980). Rules and representations. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Chomsky, N. (1986). Knowledge of language: Its nature, origins, and use. New York, NY: Praeger.Google Scholar
  20. Creese, A., & Blackledge, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for learning and teaching? The Modern Language Journal, 94, 103–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In California State Department of Education (Ed.), Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework (pp. 3–49). Los Angeles: California State University.Google Scholar
  22. Dorleijn, M. (2017). Is dense codeswitching complex? Language Sciences, 60, 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elwell, V. (1977). Multilingualism and lingua francas among Australian Aborigines: a case study of Maningrida (Unpublished honours thesis). Canberra: Australian National University.Google Scholar
  24. Elwell, V. (1982). Some social factors affecting multilingualism among Aboriginal Australians: A case study of Maningrida. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 36, 83–104.Google Scholar
  25. Enfield, N. (2009). The anatomy of meaning: Speech, gesture and composite utterances. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. England, C. B., Litchfield, P. M., England, R. W., & Carew, M. (2014). Gun-ngaypa Rrawa “My Country”. Batchelor, N.T: Batchelor Press.Google Scholar
  27. Epps, P. (2018). Contrasting linguistic ecologies: Indigenous and colonially mediated language contact in Northwest Amazonia. In R. Singer & J. Vaughan (Eds.), Indigenous Multilingualism [Special Issue]. Language & Communication. https://doi-org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/10.1016/j.langcom.2018.04.010Google Scholar
  28. Evans, N. (1992). Macassan loanwords in top end languages. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 12(1), 45–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fardon, R., & Furniss, G. (1994). Introduction: Frontiers and boundaries – African languages as political environment. In R. Fardon & G. Furniss (Eds.), African languages, development and the state (pp. 1–32). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. François, A. (2012). The dynamics of linguistic diversity: Egalitarian multilingualism and power imbalance among northern Vanuatu languages. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2012(214), 85–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. García, O. (2009). Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  32. García, O. (2011). Educating New York’s bilingual children: Constructing a future from the past. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14(2), 133–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. García, O. (2012). Theorizing translanguaging for educators. In C. Celic & K. Seltzer (Eds.), Translanguaging: A CUNY-NYSIEB guide for educators (pp. 1–6). New York: CUNY-NYSIEB.Google Scholar
  34. García, O. (2014). Countering the dual: Transglossia, dynamic bilingualism and translanguaging in education. In R. S. Rubdy & L. Alsagoff (Eds.), The global-local interface and hybridity: Exploring language and identity (pp. 100–118). Bristol, U.K.: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  35. García, O. & Li Wei. (2014). The translanguaging turn and its impacts. In O. García & Li Wei (Ed.), Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. García, O., & Otheguy, R. (2014). Spanish and Hispanic bilingualism. In M. Lacorte (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of Hispanic applied linguistics (pp. 639–658). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Garde, M. (2008). Kun-dangwok: “Clan lects” and Ausbau in western Arnhem Land. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 191, 141–169.Google Scholar
  38. Genesee, F., & Nicoladis, E. (2006). Bilingual acquisition. In E. Hoff & M. Shatz (Eds.), Handbook of language development (pp. 324–342). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  39. Gutiérrez, K. D., Baquedano-López, P., & Tejeda, C. (1999). Rethinking diversity: Hybridity and hybrid language practices in the third space. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 6(4), 286–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Handelsmann, R. (1996). Needs survey of community languages: Central Arnhem Land, Northern Territory (Maningrida and Outstations). Report to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, Canberra.Google Scholar
  41. Haviland, J. B. (1982). Kin and country at Wakooka outstation: An exercise in rich interpretation. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 36, 53–70.Google Scholar
  42. Heugh, K. (2015). Epistemologies in multilingual education: Translanguaging and genre – Companions in conversation with policy and practice. Language and Education, 29(3), 280–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hornberger, N. H., & Link, H. (2012). Translanguaging and transnational literacies in multilingual classrooms: A biliteracy lens. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15, 261–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jaspers, J., & Madsen, L. M. (2016). Sociolinguistics in a languagised world: Introduction. Applied Linguistics Review, 7(3), 235–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Keen, I. (1995). Metaphor and the metalanguage: ‘Groups’ in Northeast Arnhem land. American Ethnologist, 22(3), 502–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kovelman, I., Baker, S. A., & Petitto, L.-A. (2008). Bilingual and monolingual brains compared: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of syntactic processing and a possible “neural signature” of bilingualism. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(1), 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Larsen-Freeman, D., & Cameron, L. (2008). Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Lewis, G., Jones, B., & Baker, C. (2012). Translanguaging: Origins and development from school to street and beyond. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18(7), 641–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li Wei. (1998). The ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions in the analysis of conversational code-switching. In P. Auer (Ed.), Code-switching in conversation (pp. 156–179). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Li Wei. (2011). Moment analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(5), 1222–1235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lüpke, F. (2016). Uncovering small-scale multilingualism. Critical Multilingualism Studies, 4(2), 35–74.Google Scholar
  52. MacSwan, J. (2017). A multilingual perspective on translanguaging. American Educational Research Journal, 54(1), 167–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Makoni, S., & Pennycook, A. (2007). Disinventing and reconstituting languages. In S. Makoni & A. Pennycook (Eds.), Disinventing and reconstituting languages (pp. 1–41). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  54. Makoni, S., & Pennycook, A. (2012). Disinventing multilingualism: From monological multilingualism to multilingua francas. The Routledge Handbook of Multilingualism. London: Routledge, 439–472.Google Scholar
  55. Mansfield, J. (2014). Polysynthetic sociolinguistics (Doctoral dissertation). Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved from https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/12687
  56. Mansfield, J. (2016). Borrowed verbs and the expansion of light verb phrases in Murrinhpatha. In F. Meakins & C. O’Shannessy (Eds.), Loss and renewal: Australian languages since colonisation (pp. 397–424). Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  57. May, S. (2016). Linguistic Superdiversity as a “new” theoretical framework: Panacea or nostrum? Presentation at MOSAIC, Birmingham University (3 February 2016). Retrieved from http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/generic/tlang/documents/linguistic-superdiversity-as-a-new-theoretical-framework.pdf
  58. McConvell, P. (2002). Mix-Im-up speech and emergent mixed languages in indigenous Australia. Proceedings of SALSA 2001 (symposium on language and society). Texas Linguistic Forum, 44(1), 328–349.Google Scholar
  59. McConvell, P., & Meakins, F. (2005). Gurindji Kriol: A mixed language emerges from code-switching. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 25(1), 9–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McKay, G. (2000). Ndjébbana. In R. M. W. Dixon & B. J. Blake (Eds.), The handbook of Australian languages (Vol. 5, pp. 155–354). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Meakins, F. (2008). Land, language and identity: The socio-political origins of Gurindji Kriol. In N. Nagy & M. Meyerhoff (Eds.), Social lives in language – Sociolinguistics and multilingual speech communities: Celebrating the work of Gillian Sankoff (pp. 69–94). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Meakins, F. (2011). Case-marking in contact: The development and function of case morphology in Gurindji Kriol. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Meakins, F. (2012). Which mix – Code-switching or a mixed language? – Gurindji Kriol. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 27(1), 105–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Meakins, F. (2014). Language contact varieties. In H. Koch & R. Nordlinger (Eds.), The languages and linguistics of Australia: A comprehensive guide (pp. 361–411). Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
  65. Merlan, F. (1981). Land, language and social identity in Aboriginal Australia. Mankind, 13, 133–148.Google Scholar
  66. Moje, E. B., Ciechanowski, K. M., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carrillo, R., & Collazo, T. (2004). Working toward third space in content area literacy: An examination of everyday funds of knowledge and discourse. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(1), 38–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Muysken, P. (2000). Bilingual speech: A typology of code-mixing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  68. O’Shannessy, C. (2012). The role of codeswitched input to children in the origin of a new mixed language. Linguistics, 50(2), 305–340.Google Scholar
  69. O’Shannessy, C. (2015). Typological and social factors influencing a new mixed language, Light Warlpiri. In G. Stell & K. Yakpo (Eds.), Code-switching between structural and sociolinguistic perspectives (pp. 289–304). Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  70. Otheguy, R., García, O., & Reid, W. (2015). Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistics Review, 6(3), 281–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pennycook, A. (2010). Language as a local practice. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pennycook, A., & Otsuji, E. (2014a). Metrolingual multitasking and spatial repertoires: ‘Pizza mo two minutes coming’. Journal of SocioLinguistics, 18(2), 161–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pennycook, A., & Otsuji, E. (2014b). Market lingos and metrolingua francas. International Multilingual Research Journal, 8(4), 255–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pietikäinen, S., & Kelly-Holmes, H. (2013). Multilingualism and the periphery. In S. Pietikäinen & H. Kelly-Holmes (Eds.), Multilingualism and the periphery (pp. 1–16). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Poplack, S. (2012). What does the nonce borrowing hypothesis hypothesize? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(3), 644–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Poplack, S., & Meechan, M. (1995). Patterns of language mixture: Nominal structure in Wolof-French and Fongbe-French bilingual discourse. In L. Milroy & P. Muysken (Eds.), One speaker, two languages: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on code-switching (pp. 199–232). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rigsby, B., & Sutton, P. (1980). Speech communities in aboriginal Australia. Anthropological Forum, 5(1), 8–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rumsey, A. (1993). Language and territoriality in Aboriginal Australia. In M. Walsh & C. Yallop (Eds.), Language and culture in Aboriginal Australia (pp. 191–206). Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.Google Scholar
  79. Sankoff, D., & Poplack, S. (1981). A formal grammar for code-switching. Papers in Linguistics, 14, 3–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Silverstein, M. (2015). How language communities intersect: Is “superdiversity” an incremental or transformative condition? Language & Communication, 44, 7–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Singer, R., & Harris, S. (2016). What practices and ideologies support small-scale multilingualism? A case study of Warruwi Community, northern Australia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 241, 163–208.Google Scholar
  82. Soja, E. W. (1996). Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and other real-and-imagined places. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  83. Stenson, N. (1991). Code-switching vs. borrowing in modern Irish. In P. Sture Ureland & G. Broderick (Eds.), Language contact in the British Isles: Proceedings of the eighth international symposium on language contact in Europe. Douglas, Isle of Man (pp. 559–580). Tübingen: Niemeyer.Google Scholar
  84. Stroud, C. (1992). The problem of intention and meaning in code-switching. Text - Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse, 12(1), 127–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sutton, P. (1991). Language in aboriginal Australia: Social dialects in a geographical idiom. In S. Romaine (Ed.), Language in Australia (pp. 49–66). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Thelen, E., & Smith, L. (1994). A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  87. Vaughan, J. (2018). “We talk in saltwater words”: Dimensionalisation of dialectal variation in multilingual Arnhem Land. In R. Singer & J. Vaughan (Eds.), Indigenous Multilingualism [Special Issue]. Language & Communication.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2017.10.002.
  88. Vaughan, J., & Carew, M. (2016, September 24–25). ‘New’ code-switching and long-term multilingualism at Maningrida. Paper presented at 8th Australianists in Europe workshop, SOAS, London.Google Scholar
  89. Vertovec, S. (2007). Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(6), 1024–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Walker, A., & Zorc, R. D. (1981). Austronesian loanwords in Yolngu Matha of Northeast Arnhem land. Aboriginal History, 5(2), 109–134.Google Scholar
  91. Williams, C. (1994). Arfarniad o ddulliau dysgu ac addysgu yng nghyd-destun addysg uwchradd ddwyieithog [An evaluation of teaching and learning methods in the context of bilingual secondary education] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Bangor, UK: University of Wales.Google Scholar
  92. Wohlgemuth, J. (2009). A typology of verbal borrowing. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wolff, H. E. (2000). Pre-school child multilingualism and its educational implications in the African Context (PRAESA Occasional Papers, No. 4). Cape Town: PRAESA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Language and LiteratureNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Research Unit for Indigenous LanguageUniversity of MelbourneVictoriaAustralia

Personalised recommendations