Rethinking ‘Things’ - Fog Layer Interplay in IoT: A Mobile Code Approach

  • Behailu NegashEmail author
  • Tomi Westerlund
  • Pasi Liljeberg
  • Hannu Tenhunen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing book series (LNBIP, volume 310)


A client-server architecture style is one of the common approaches enabling separation of concerns in distributed systems. In the Internet of Things architecture, this approach exists in different configuration of sensors, actuators, gateways in the Fog layer and servers in the Cloud. This configuration affects the degree of interoperability, scalability and other functional and non-functional system requirements. In this paper, we reflect on best practices in the web and REST style to address IoT challenges; one of the constraints in REST, Code on Demand, is used for IoT to enhance the flexibility and interoperability of resource constrained clients at the perception layer. Scripts written in a domain specific language, DoS-IL, are organized and stored at the Fog layer for sensor and actuators nodes to request and execute the incoming script. A generic application layer protocol and RESTful server are presented along with experimental results.


Internet of Things Architecture Interoperability Fog computing Scalability DoS-IL Programmability 


  1. 1.
    Minerva, R., Biru, A., Rotondi, D.: Towards a definition of the Internet of Things (IoT). IEEE, Technical report (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berners-Lee, T.: WWW: past, present, and future. Computer 29(10), 69–77 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Singh, D., Tripathi, G., Jara, A.J.: A survey of Internet-of-Things: future vision, architecture, challenges and services. In: 2014 IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), pp. 287–292, March 2014Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fielding, R.T.: Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Irvine (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fuggetta, A., Picco, G.P., Vigna, G.: Understanding code mobility. IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. 24(5), 342–361 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bermudez-Edo, M., Elsaleh, T., Barnaghi, P., Taylor, K.: IoT-lite: a lightweight semantic model for the Internet of Things. In: 2016 International IEEE Conferences on UIC/ATC/ScalCom/CBDCom/IoP/SmartWorld, pp. 90–97, July 2016Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Negash, B., Westerlund, T., Rahmani, A.M., Liljeberg, P., Tenhunen, H.: DoS-IL: a domain specific Internet of Things language for resource constrained devices. Procedia Comput. Sci. 109, 416–423 (2017).
  8. 8.
    Zorzi, M., Gluhak, A., Lange, S., Bassi, A.: From today’s Intranet of Things to a future Internet of Things: a wireless- and mobility-related view. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 17(6), 44–51 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li, Y., Su, X., Riekki, J., Kanter, T., Rahmani, R.: A SDN-based architecture for horizontal Internet of Things services. In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1–7, May 2016Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eclipse IoT Working Group: IoT developer suvey. IEEE, IoT Eclipse, Agile, Technical report (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    IoT-A Project, Internet of things - architecture, IoT-A, deliverable d1.5 - final architecture reference model for the IoT v3.0, EU-FP7, Technical report (2013).
  12. 12.
    Razzaque, M.A., Milojevic-Jevric, M., Palade, A., Clarke, S.: Middleware for Internet of Things: a survey. IEEE Internet Things J. 3(1), 70–95 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    OpenFog Consortium: OpenFog Reference Architecture for Fog Computing. OpenFog Consortium, Technical report (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Negash, B.: ISSS implementation.

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Behailu Negash
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tomi Westerlund
    • 1
  • Pasi Liljeberg
    • 1
  • Hannu Tenhunen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Information TechnologyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Department of Industrial and Medical ElectronicsKTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations