Racial Differences in the Effects of Campus Climate on Sense of Belonging at Public Research Universities

  • Young K. Kim
  • Oscar Espinoza-Parra
  • Liz A. Rennick
  • Marla A. Franco
  • Marie Christie Dam
  • Melody Rensberger


In this chapter, the authors examine the effect of campus climate on sense of belonging and how the effect differs by race/ethnicity among college students at public research universities. Findings show that sense of belonging and perceptions of campus climate vary by students’ racial/ethnic backgrounds and that the effect of perceived campus climate on sense of belonging is also conditioned by students’ race/ethnicity. The chapter highlights unique challenges experienced by African American men in college who are less likely to feel a sense of belonging on campus and tend to perceive a less positive campus climate compared to their peers. The authors offer recommendations for higher education institutions attempting to cultivate a more positive campus climate and heightened sense of belonging among diverse students.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Young K. Kim
    • 1
  • Oscar Espinoza-Parra
    • 2
  • Liz A. Rennick
    • 3
  • Marla A. Franco
    • 3
  • Marie Christie Dam
    • 1
  • Melody Rensberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Azusa Pacific UniversityAzusaUSA
  2. 2.College of the DesertPalm DesertUSA
  3. 3.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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