Advertisement

China: Sociological Perspectives on Ethnicity and Education: Views from Chinese and English Literatures

  • Hua-Yu Sebastian CherngEmail author
  • Emily Hannum
  • Chunping Lu
  • Peggy A. Kong
  • Xiaoran Yu
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews Chinese- and English-language literature on ethnic minorities and education in China. Six major research topics emerge from the Chinese-language research: (1) Marxism and ethnic minority education; (2) patriotism and national unity in education for ethnic minority students; (3) multicultural education; (4) determinants of ethnic differences in education; (5) school facilities and teacher quality; and (6) preferential / affirmative action policies. Four research themes are identified from the English-language literature: (1) policy overviews; (2) education and ethnic identity; (3) incentives and disincentives for buy-in to the education system; and (4) educational stratification. The majority of quantitative research from both Chinese- and English-language literature investigates ethnic minorities as a collective group. Qualitative research focuses on individual ethnic groups, although no one group is the focus of particular attention. More qualitative studies currently exist, but the number of quantitative studies is growing, given the growing availability of survey and census data containing information on ethnic minorities. Both literatures focus on the complex interrelationships of ethnicity with cultural, policy, development, and language issues. Yet, these literatures draw on different ideological starting points, conform to different norms of academic composition, and speak to different audiences in different sociopolitical contexts. For these reasons, the English literature tends to adopt a more critical tone. However, more recent Chinese literature attends to educational equality and the role of cultural capital. Overall, relatively little of the work in either language comes from the field of sociology of education. More comparatively and theoretically framed work is needed to enable the Chinese experience to be informed by and inform global research in sociology of education.

Bibliography

Chinese References Cited

  1. 阿吉泰 (A Jitai). (2011). 论教育公平视野下的少数民族远程高等教育. 山西广播电视大学学报, 84(5), 11–12.Google Scholar
  2. 敖俊梅 (Ao Junmei). (2006). 个体平等,抑或群体平等——少数民族高等教育招生政策理论探究. 清华大学教育研究, 27(6), 70–74.Google Scholar
  3. 柏果成 (Bai Guocheng). (1986). 瑶山民族教育调查报告.贵州民族学院学报 (社会科学版), 2, 87–94.Google Scholar
  4. 曹清波 (Cao Qingbo). (2014). 公平视角下的少数民族教育发展对策研究. 内蒙古师范大学学报 (教育科学版), 27(7), 1–3.Google Scholar
  5. 陈巴特尔, 孙轮旋, 陈安吉尔 (Chen Bateer, Sun Lunxuan, Chen Anjier). (2013). 我国少数民族教育公平的文化考量. 北京大学教育评论, 11(3), 181–188.Google Scholar
  6. 戴文亮 (Dai Wenliang). (2012). 文化多元视域下的民族教育公平. 前沿, 20, 122–123.Google Scholar
  7. 杜文银, 陈艳松 (Du Wenyin, Chen Yansong). (2014). 西南边疆民族地区中小学体育教育公平探析—以德宏州为例. 体育教育, 88, 52–91.Google Scholar
  8. 段新刚 (Duan Xingang). (2015). 边疆民族地区教育信息化促进教育公平、均衡发展探索. 西藏科技, 4, 41–42.Google Scholar
  9. 付晓华 (Fu Xiaohua). (2015). 公平是少数民族对城市教育的最大诉求—以广东省外来少数民族流动人口子女教育需求为例. 中国民族教育, 5, 23–25.Google Scholar
  10. 甘肃省教育厅民族教育处 (Minority Education Department of Gansu Provincial Department of Education). (2010). 甘肃省民族地区教育综合统计报表 (2009/2010). 内部资料.Google Scholar
  11. 国家统计局 (National Bureau of Statistics). (2011). 2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公 报 (第1号). http://www.stats.gov.cn/was40/gjtjj_detail.jsp?searchword=%C8%CB%BF%DA%C6%D5%B2%E9&presearchword=%C8%CB%BF%DA%C6%D5%B2%E9&channelid=6697&record=40.
  12. 高永超, 赵红霞 (Gao Yongchao, Zhao Hongxia). (2016). 西部农村贫困少数民族子女的教育公平问题探析. 兵团教育学院学报, 26(1), 6–10.Google Scholar
  13. 郭正涛, 侯阳阳 (Guo Zhengtao, Hou Yangyang). (2011). 发展少数民族地区农村教育促进教育公平—以广东民族地区为例. 清远职业技术学院学报, 4(1), 16–19.Google Scholar
  14. 韩峰 (Han Feng). (2012). 促进西南少数民族地区中小学教育公平的公共政策分析. 赤峰学院学报 (自然科学版), 28(3), 195–197.Google Scholar
  15. 韩峰, 李蕊 (Han Feng, Li Rui). (2012). 西南民族地区中小学教育公平问题研究——以黔东南州为例. 凯里学院学报, 30(4), 146–148.Google Scholar
  16. 韩嘉玲 (Han Jialing). (1999). 中国贫困地区的女童教育研究: 贵州省雷山县案例调查.民族教 育研究, 2.Google Scholar
  17. 何金元 (He Jinyuan). (2013). 科学发展观视野下关于民族高等教育公平的思考. 西南农业大学学报, 11(3), 139–143.Google Scholar
  18. 何林, 蓝蔚 (He Lin, Lan Wei). (2013). 合理性视域下西部民族地区教育公平的思考. 前沿, 19, 117–120.Google Scholar
  19. 洪岩璧 (Hong Yanbi). (2010). 族群与教育不平等:我国西部少数民族教育获得的一项实证研究. 社会, 30(2), 45–73.Google Scholar
  20. 胡玉婷 (Hu Yuting). (2011). 和谐视野下少数民族地区教育机会平等问题探析. 教育文化论坛, 4, 36–38.Google Scholar
  21. 胡鞍钢、温军 (Hu Angang, Wen Jun). (2001). 社会发展优先:西部民族地区新的追赶战略.民族研究, 3, 12–23.Google Scholar
  22. 黄燕平 (Huang Yanping). (2015). 湖南省民族地区中小学数学教育公平问题研究. 科技视界, 13, 25.Google Scholar
  23. 黄利红, 覃美洲, 周丽丽 (Huang Lihong, Tan Meizhou, Zhou Lili). (2013). 宪法视野下少数民族高考优惠政策与受教育权的平等保护. 民族教育研究, 24(2), 37–41.Google Scholar
  24. 黄真金 (Huang Zhenjin). (2016). 互联网视域下微课促进民族地区教育公平发展的可行性与路径研究. 贵州民族研究, 37(6), 216–219.Google Scholar
  25. 贾东海 (Jia Donghai). (2000). 马克思主义民族理论与政策五十年研究回顾.兰州,甘肃人民 出版社.Google Scholar
  26. 贾东海(Jia Donghai). (2007). 马克思主义民族理论与民族政策研究——中国化的实践.Google Scholar
  27. 教育部 (Ministry of Education). (1983). 教育部关于学习贯彻《关于加强爱国主义宣传教育的意见》的通知. 中国教育年鉴 (1982–1984).北京:中国大百科全书出版社出版.Google Scholar
  28. 教育部(Ministry of Education). (2001). 基础教育课程改革纲要(试行). 中华人民共和国教育部网站. www.moe.edu.cn.
  29. 教育部 (Ministry of Education). (2004). 内地新疆高中班办学工作取得初步成效. 中华人民共和国教育部网站. http://www.moe.gov.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/moe_317/200409/941.html
  30. 教育部(Ministry of Education). (2010). 2009年全国各级各类学历教育学生情况. 教育部网站. http://www.moe.edu.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/s4959/201012/113484.html
  31. 教育部,国家发展改革委,财政部 (Ministry of Education, National Commission on Development and Reform, Ministry of Finance). (2007). 关于《国家西部地区“两基”攻坚计划 (2004—2007年)》完成情况的报告. http://www.moe.gov.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/s3034/201001/xxgk_78196.html
  32. 教育部发展规划司编(Development Planning Division of the Ministry of Education). (2000).《中国教育事业发展统计简况 (1999) 》.Google Scholar
  33. 教育部发展规划司编 (Development Planning Division of the Ministry of Education). (2010). 2009全国教育事业发展简明统计分析.Google Scholar
  34. 康开艳, 杨永刚 (Kang Kaiyan, Yang Yonggang). (2012). 信息技术对促进民族地区基础教育公平的意义. 黑河学刊, 10, 43–44.Google Scholar
  35. 李红霞, 李锦江 (Li Hongxia, Li Jinjiang). (2014). 教育公平视野下民族地区县域民办幼儿园的生存现状. 现代教育科学, 6, 106–108.Google Scholar
  36. 李长安, 龙远蔚 (Li Changan, Long Yuanwei). (2013). 民族地区教育公平问题研究—基于2011年广西调查数据的实证分析. 民族研究, 5, 35–45.Google Scholar
  37. 李敏 (Li Min). (2011). 新疆内高班内初班年招生规模2014年将分别达到1万人.天山网. http://www.xjts.cn/news/content/2011-01/26/content_5554129.htm 2011.1.26.
  38. 李明辉 (Li Minghui). (2014). 少数民族地区高考招生优惠政策与教育公平问题探讨. 教师, 3, 128–128.Google Scholar
  39. 李爽, 王朔 (Li Shuang, Wang Shuo). (2014). 文化资本视域下民族地区教育公平问题研究. 现代中小学教育, 30(7), 1–4.Google Scholar
  40. 李媛媛, 江彬 (Li Yuanyuan, Jiang Bin). (2012). 教育公平视角下的民族幼儿教育浅析. 教育教学论坛, 40, 261–262.Google Scholar
  41. 梁小丽, 刘琼 (Liang Xiaoli, Liu Qiong). (2014). 民族地区普惠性学前教育的文化公平——基于儿童文化的视角. 兴义民族师范学院学报, 6, 67–70.Google Scholar
  42. 刘精明、杨江华 (Liu Jingming, Yang Jianghua). (2007). 关注贫困儿童的教育公平问题. 华中师范大学学报, 46(2), 120–128.Google Scholar
  43. 刘燕平, 马生香, 宁银丽, 钱力 (Liu Yanping, Ma Shengxiang, Ning Yinli, Qian Li). (2011). 西北民族牧区两性教育不平等问题实证研究. 西藏大学学报, 26(4), 164–169.Google Scholar
  44. 马茜 (Ma Qian). (2004). 多民族地区教育学业成就的地域性阐释:以云南省中甸县第一中学为个案. 广西民族学院学报 (哲社版), 26(3), 32–37.Google Scholar
  45. 马戎 (Ma Rong). (1998). 西藏地区教育事业的发展.中国藏学, 2, 3–24.Google Scholar
  46. 马戎 (Ma Rong). (2003). 中国各族群之间的结构性差异. 社会科学战线, 4.Google Scholar
  47. 马戎 (Ma Rong). (2007). 当前中国民族问题研究的选题与思路. 中央民族大学学报 (哲学社会科学版), 34(3), 12–38.Google Scholar
  48. 马戎 (Ma Rong). (2008). 新疆民族教育的发展与双语教育的实践.北京大学教育评论, 6(2), 2–41.Google Scholar
  49. 宁亚萍, 王平, 徐世英 (Ning Yaping, Wang Ping, Xu Shiying). (2014). 基于普查数据的我国18 个少数民族受教育程度及公平性统计分析. 中央民族大学学报( 自然科学版), 23(1), 89–92.Google Scholar
  50. 朴婷姬, 李瑛 (Piao Tingji, Li Ying). (2014). 教育公平视角下少数民族基础教育的现状、问题与对策. 大连大学学报, 35(5), 96–100.Google Scholar
  51. 钱民辉(Qian Minhui). (2007). 断裂与重构: 少数民族地区学校教育中的潜在课程研究. 西北民族研究, 52(1), 58–68.Google Scholar
  52. 斯琴格日乐 (Si Qingerile). (2013). 教育公平视角下少数民族高考倾斜政策的现实冲突与改进对策. 中国青年研究, 2, 15–18.Google Scholar
  53. 斯琴格日乐, 陆俊 (Si Qingerile, Lu Jun). (2013). 教育公平视角下少数民族高考倾斜政策的价值冲突与改进对策. 广西社会科学, 2, 176–180.Google Scholar
  54. 孙中伟, 刘飞, 胡双喜 (Sun Zhongwei, Liu Fei, Hu Shuangxi). (2013). 教育不平等与外来工工资的民族差异——兼论少数民族外来工教育获得的“三重弱势”. 南方人口, 28(1), 39–51.Google Scholar
  55. 滕星 (Teng Xing). (2001). 文化变迁与双语教育——凉山彝族社区教育人类学的田野工作于文本撰述. 北京:教育科学出版社.Google Scholar
  56. 滕星(Teng Xing). (2004). 小康社会与西部偏远贫困地区少数民族基础教育.云南民族大学学报 (哲学社会科学版), 21(4), 148–150.Google Scholar
  57. 滕星, 马效义(Teng Xing, Ma Xiaoyi). (2005). 中国高等教育的少数民族优惠政策与教育平等. 民族研究, 5, 10–18.Google Scholar
  58. 滕星, 苏红 (Teng Xing, Su Hong). (1997). 多元文化社会与多元一体化教育.民族教育研究, 1, 18–31.Google Scholar
  59. 滕星, 苏红 (Teng Xing, Su Hong). (1998). 中国少数民族地区现代化过程与教育机会平等.教育科学, 1, 9–11.Google Scholar
  60. 田琳, 周利 (Tian Lin, Zhou Li). (2014). 少数民族大学生教育公平问题研究——以中央民族大学附属中学为例. 民族教育研究, 25(6), 5–10.Google Scholar
  61. 万明钢 (Wan Minggang). (2006). 多元文化视野价值观与民族认同研究.北京:民族出版社.Google Scholar
  62. 万明钢, 白亮 (Wan Minggang, Bai Liang). (2008). 西方多元文化教育与我国少数民族教育之比较. 民族研究, 6, 32–41.Google Scholar
  63. 王鉴 (Wang Jian). (2003). 我国民族教育政策体系探讨. 民族研究, 6, 33–41.Google Scholar
  64. 王嘉毅 (Wang Jiayi). (2006). 西北少数民族基础教育发展现状与对策研究. 北京:民族出版社.Google Scholar
  65. 王丽娜, 吴文娟 (Wang Lina, Wu Wenjuan). (2011). 基于民族平等观点下看新疆教育优惠政策. 河北能源职业技术学院学报, 3, 19–21.Google Scholar
  66. 王希辉 (Wang Xihui). (2012). 教育公平与武陵民族地区农村学校教育发展研究—基于湖北恩施市茅坝小学的教育民族志调查. 民族教育研究, 23(3), 26–31.Google Scholar
  67. 王宇航 (Wang Yuhang). (2014). 教育公平视域下少数民族教育问题的思考. 黑龙江民族丛刊, 3, 144–148.Google Scholar
  68. 王振岭(Wang Zhenling). (1990). 发展藏族教育必须从实际出发 讲求实效——多玛县少数民族教育调查报告, 1, 110–116.Google Scholar
  69. 魏军 (Wei Jun). (2014). 教育公平视域下民族地区学前教育的均衡发展研究. 新余学院学报, 19(2), 126–128.Google Scholar
  70. 吴晗 (Wu Han). (2014). 论教育公平与发展西部民族地区教育事业. 延边党校学报, 30(2), 108–110.Google Scholar
  71. 吴乌云格日乐 (Wu Wuyungerile). (2014). 少数民族大学生教育公平问题研究. 赤峰学院学报 (汉文哲学社会科学版), 35(6), 249–250.Google Scholar
  72. 吴乌云格日乐 (Wu Wuyungerile). (2015). 跨文化背景下少数民族大学生教育公平问题. 阴山学刊, 28(5), 100–103.Google Scholar
  73. 西藏自治区统计局 (Tibet Autonomous Region Bureau of Statistics). (1989). 1989:549;1991:396.Google Scholar
  74. 夏仕武 (Xia Shiwu). (2007). 中国少数民族教育.五洲传播出版社.Google Scholar
  75. 许洁英 (Xu Jieying). (2009). 加快少数民族教育发展,切实促进教育公平.西北师范大学学报, 46(1), 75–78.Google Scholar
  76. 杨军 (Yang Jun). (2006). 西北少数民族地区基础教育均衡发展研究. 民族出版社.Google Scholar
  77. 于洪武 (Yu Hongwu). (2010). 民族教育科研成果资料选编. 北京:民族出版社.Google Scholar
  78. 袁梅 (Yuan Mei). (2012). 教育公平视野下民族地区实施蒙台梭利幼儿教育的重要性及必要性分析. 科教导刊, 2, 251–252.Google Scholar
  79. 袁同凯 (Yuan Tongkai). (2004). 走进竹篱教室: 土瑶学校教育的民族志研究.天津: 天津人民出版社.Google Scholar
  80. 袁同凯, 胡松园 (Yuan Tongkai, Hu Songyuan). (2014). 我国少数民族学校教育发展中的不公平现象及原因与对策研究. 云南民族大学学报(哲学社会科学版), 31(3), 151–155.Google Scholar
  81. 张艾力 (Zhang Aili). (2011). 论民族关系和谐视阈下的教育公平. 民族教育研究, 22(5), 35–38.Google Scholar
  82. 张善鑫、刘旭东 (Zhang Shanxin, Liu Xudong). (2010). 少数民族教育公平问题探析——一位校长的教育人类学口述研究.当代教育与文化.Google Scholar
  83. 赵跟喜 (Zhao Genxi). (2013). 促进教育公平,发展西部少数民族地区农村学前教育——以广西扶绥县为例. 湖北民族学院学报 (哲学社会科学版), 31(6), 153–155.Google Scholar
  84. 赵明仁 (Zhao Mingren). (2010). 甘肃省中小学教师队伍建设及管理调研报告.未发表.Google Scholar
  85. 中央统战部办公厅、教育部办公厅、西藏自治区人民政府办公厅 (Ministry of Education, the General Office of Tibet Autonomous Region People's Government). (2007). 全国内地西藏班办学和教育援藏工作会议纪要.中华人民共和国教育部网站, http://www.moe.gov.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/A09_xxgk/200705/xxgk_62393.html.
  86. 周庚鑫 (Zhou Gengxin). (1985). 必须加快少数民族地区教育改革的步伐——滇西南四县初等教育情况调查.民族研究, 3, 60–64.Google Scholar
  87. 周爱保, 侯玲, 高承梅 (Zhou Aibao, Hou Ling, Gao Chengmei). (2015). 民族认同和国家认同的和谐共生: 社会公正信念的作用. 民族问题研究, 4, 9–13.Google Scholar
  88. 朱志勇 (Zhu Zhiyong). (2006). 学校教育情境中族群认同的建构——内地西藏班的个案研究. 南京师大学报 (社会科学版), 4, 82–88.Google Scholar
  89. 朱志勇 (Zhu Zhiyong). (2007). 西藏牧区“三包”政策下的基础教育反思:个案研究.教育研究与实验, 4, 16–21.Google Scholar
  90. 祖力亚提.司马义 (Zu Liyati. Simayi). (2009). 族群认同感建构的社会学分析:以新疆“民考汉” 为例. 西北民族研究, 63(3), 65–75.Google Scholar

English References Cited

  1. Adamson, B., & Feng, A. (2009). A Comparison of Trilingual Education Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 39(3), 321–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bass, C. (1998). Education in Tibet. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  3. Chen, Y. (2008). Muslim Uyghur Students in a Chinese Boarding School: Social Recapitalization as a Response to Ethnic Integration. Maryland: Lexington Books. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=roiuY7bnb80C
  4. Chen, Y. (2010). Crossing the Frontier to Inland China. Chinese Education & Society, 43(1), 46–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. China, I. O. of the S. C. of the P. R. of. (2000). National Minorities Policy and Its Practice in China (Vol. 2009). Retrieved from http://www.china.org.cn/e-white/4/4.3.htm
  6. Choi, S. (2010). Globalization, China’s Drive for World-Class Universities (211 Project) and the Challenges of Ethnic Minority Higher Education: The Case of Yanbian University. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(2), 169–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chu, Y. (2015). The Power of knowledge: A Critical Analysis of the Depiction of Ethnic Minorities in China’ Elementary Textbooks. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 18(4), 469–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clothey, R. A. (2005a). China’s Policies for Minority Nationalities in Higher Education: Negotiating National Values and Ethnic Identities. Comparative Education Review, 49(3), 389–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clothey, R. A. (2005b). Strangers in a Strange Place: The Experience of Ethnic Minority Students at the Central University for Nationalities in Beijing. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/60510099?accountid=14707
  10. Clothey, R. A., & Hu, D. (2015). The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China. Higher Education Policy, 28, 353–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dai, Q., & Dong, Y. (2001). The Historical Evolution of Bilingual Education for China’s Ethnic Minorities. Chinese Education & Society, 34(2), 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ding, H., & Yu, L. (2013). The Dilemma: A Study of Bilingual Education Policy in Yi Minority Schools in Liangshan. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16(4), 451–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Duan, Y. (2011). Trilingual Literacy for Ethnic Groups in China: A Case Study of Hani People in Yuanyang County of Yunnan. English Language Teaching, 4(4), 274–278.Google Scholar
  14. Education, M. of. (1986). People’s Republic of China Law on Compulsory Education (Vol. 2009).Google Scholar
  15. Education, M. of. (1995). People’s Republic of China Education Law (Vol. 2011).Google Scholar
  16. Fei, X. (1981). Toward a People’s Anthropology. Beijing: New World Press.Google Scholar
  17. Feng, A. (2005). Bilingualism for the Minor or the Major? An Evaluative Analysis of Parallel Conceptions in China. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 8(6), 529–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Feng, A., & Sunuodula, M. (2009). Analysing Language Education Policy for China’s Minority Groups in Its Entirety. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12(6), 685–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gao, F. (2010). Bilingual Education Among Ethnic Koreans in China. Chinese Education & Society, 43(1), 82–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gao, F. (2012). Imagined Identity of Ethnic Koreans and Its Implication for Bilingual Education in China. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15(3), 343–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gao, F., & Park, J. (2012). Korean-Chinese Parents’ Language Attitudes and Additive Bilingual Education in China. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(6), 539–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gladney, D. C. (2004). Dislocating China: Muslims, Minorities, and Other Subaltern Subjects. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  23. Gustafsson, B., & Ding, S. (2006). Villages Where China’s Ethnic Minorities Live (No. 2418) (pp. 1–41). Retrieved from ftp://repec.iza.org/RePEc/Discussionpaper/dp2418.pdf
  24. Gustafsson, B., & Ding, S. (2009). Temporary and Persistent Poverty Among Ethnic Minorities and the Majority in Rural China. Review of Income and Wealth, 55, 588–606.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4991.2009.00332.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gustafsson, B., & Shi, L. (2003). The Ethnic Minority-Majority Income Gap in Rural China During Transition. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 51(4), 805–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hannum, E. (2002). Educational Stratification by Ethnicity in China: Enrollment and Attainment in the Early Reform Years. Demography, 39(1), 95–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hannum, E., & Wang, M. (2012). China: A Case Study in Rapid Poverty Reduction. In G. Hall & H. A. Patrinos (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Hannum, E., & Xie, Y. (1998). Ethnic Stratification in Northwest China: Occupational Differences Between Han Chinese and National Minorities in Xinjiang, 1982–1990. Demography, 35(3), 323–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hannum, E., An, X., & Cherng, H.-Y. S. (2011). Examinations and Educational Opportunity in China: Mobility and Bottlenecks for the Rural Poor. Oxford Review of Education, 37(2), 267–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hansen, M. H. (1999). Lessons in Being Chinese: Minority Education and Ethnic Identity in Southwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  31. Harrell, S. (Ed.). (1995). Cultural Encounters on China’s Ethnic Frontiers. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98083170
  32. Harrell, S., & Mgebbu (Ma), L. (Erzi). (1999). Folk Theories of Success Where Han Aren’t Always Best. In G. A. Postiglione (Ed.), China’s National Minority Education: Culture, Schooling, and Development (pp. 213–242). New York: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hong, Y. (2010). Home Language and Educational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Western China. Chinese Education and Society, 43(1), 24–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Iredale, R. R., Bilik, N., & Su, W. (2001). Contemporary Minority Migration, Education, and Ethnicity in China. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  35. Jennings, R. (2010). China’s ant Tribe Poses Policy Challenge for Beijing Reuters. TANGJIALING, China. http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/02/18/us-china-middleclass-idUSTRE61H01220100218
  36. Jing, D., & Huang, J. (2015). The New Paradigm of Ethnic Minority Educational Research: Mixed Methods Research. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(36), 118–121.Google Scholar
  37. Lang, W. (2010). Entrance Exam Admission Policies on Ethnic Minorities and Equal Educational Rights for Minorities in China. Chinese Education & Society, 43(4), 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lin, J. (1997). Policies and Practices of Bilingual Education for the Minorities in China. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 18(3), 193–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ma, R. (2007). Bilingual Education for China’s Ethnic Minorities. Chinese Education and Society, 40(2), 9–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maurer-Fazio, M. (2011). Ethnicity and Hiring in China: Evidence from a Field Experiment. Presented at the Workshop on Ethnicity and Economic and Social Development in China and in the World. Beijing: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  41. Ojijed, W. (2010). Language Competition in an Ethnic Autonomous Region. Chinese Education & Society, 43(1), 58–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ou, Q., & Du, N. (2012). Teachers’ Multicultural Awareness and the Ethnic Identity of Minority Students: An Individual Case Study of a Hani Student. Frontiers of Education in China, 7(2), 212–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peng, A., & Song, N. (2014). The Status Quo and Development of Mathematics Education for Ethnic Minorities in China. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 14(1), 171–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Postiglione, G. (2007). School Access and Equity in Rural Tibet. In E. Hannum & A. Park (Eds.), (pp. 93–116). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. Postiglione, G. (2009). Education of Ethnic Groups in China. In J. Banks (Ed.), The Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education (pp. 501–511). New York/London: .Routledge. Retrieved from http://www0.hku.hk/chinaed/papers/Prof.%20G.A.%20Postiglione/The_Education_of_Ethnic_Minority_Groups_in_China.doc
  46. Postiglione, G., Zhiyong, Z., & Jiao, B. (2004). From Ethnic Segregation to Impact Integration: State Schooling and Identity Construction for Rural Tibetans. Asian Ethnicity, 5(2), 195–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Postiglione, G. A., Jiao, B., & Gyatso, S. (2005). Education in Rural Tibet: Development, Problems and Adaptations. China: An International Journal, 3(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
  48. Ross, H. (2006). Where and Who Are the World’s Illiterates: China. UNESCO Global Monitoring Report China Country Study, 65.Google Scholar
  49. Sautman, B. (1999). Ethnic Law and Minority Rights in China: Progress and Constraints. Law & Policy, 21(3), 283–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shen, H., & Qian, M. (2010). The Other in Education. Chinese Education & Society, 43(5), 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sun, B., & Qi, J. (2007). Development of Ethnic Education and Educational Equality in China: A Statistical Analysis Based on the Two Recent Population Censuses. Frontiers of Education in China, 2(4), 528–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sun, B., & Xu, J. (2010). Why Ethnic Minority Children Are More Likely to Drop Out of School: A Cultural Capital Perspective–Evidence from Ethnic Minority Rural Communities in the Northwest. Chinese Education and Society, 43(5), 31–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Teng, X. (2002). Bilingual Society and Bilingual Education of the Yi Ethnic Minority of the Liangshan Yi Ethnic Minority Autonomous Prefecture in China Amid Cultural Changes–History, Present Situation, Problems, and Analysis. Chinese Education & Society, 35(3), 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tsung, L. (2009). Minority Languages, Education and Communities in China. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved from http://www.palgrave.com/products/title.aspx?PID=280404
  55. Tsung, L. T. H., & Cruickshank, K. (2009). Mother Tongue and Bilingual Minority Education in China. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12(5), 549–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang, G. (2011). Bilingual Education in Southwest China: A Yingjiang Case. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14(5), 571–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang, C., & Zhou, Q. (2003). Minority Education in China: From State’s Preferential Policies to Dislocated Tibetan Schools. Educational Studies (03055698), 29(1), 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang, X., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., & Rozelle, S. (2013). College Is a Rich, Han, Urban, Male Club: Research Notes from a Census Survey of Four Tier One Colleges in China. The China Quarterly. Retrieved from https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/S0305741013000647
  59. West, L. A. (2004). Demographic and Socioeconomic Status of China’s Minority Ethnic Population: Any Closing of the Gap? In Session 110: Racial and Ethnic Differences in Schooling: International Contexts (pp. 1–30). Boston: Presented at the Population Association of America. Retrieved from http://proxy.library.upenn.edu:9523/download.asp?submissionId=41095
  60. Wong, D. W. S. (2000). Ethnic Integration and Spatial Segregation of the Chinese Population. Asian Ethnicity, 1(1), 53–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wu, J. (2012). Disenchantment and Participatory Limits of Compulsory Education: Lessons from Southwest China. Compare, 42(4), 621–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wu, J. (2016). Ambivalent “Quality” and the Educational Sublime: Curriculum Reform Meets Ethnic Rural Development in Southwest China. In S. Guo & Y. Guo (Eds.), Spotlight on China: Changes in Education Under China’s Market Economy (pp. 67–84). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wu, X., & Song, X. (2010). Ethnic Stratification in China’s Labor Markets: Evidence from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. International Sociological Association-Research Committee on Social Stratification and Mobility (RC28), Haifa, Israel (2010-5-09).Google Scholar
  64. Xiao, H. (1998). Minority Languages in Dehong, China: Policy and Reality. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 19(3), 221–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yang, Y., Wang, H., Zhang, L, Sylvia, S., Luo, R., … Rozelle, S. (2015). The Han-Minority Achievement Gap, Language, and Returns to Schools in Rural China. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 63(2), 319–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yi, L. (2006). Choosing Between Ethnic and Chinese Citizenship: The Educational Trajectories of Tibetan Minority Children in Northwestern China. In V. L. Fong & R. Murphy (Eds.), Chinese Citizenship: The View from the Margins (pp. 41–67). Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Yu, H. (2010). Cultural Integration and Education of the Naxi. Chinese Education & Society, 43(1), 36–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zang, X. (2008). Market Reforms and Han-Muslim Variation in Employment in the Chinese State Sector in a Chinese City. World Development, 36(11), 2341–2352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zhang, J., & Verhoeven, J. C. (2010). Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, South Western China. Frontiers of Education in China, 5(2), 290–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhang, L., & Wang, F. (2010). Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China’s Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement. Chinese Education and Society, 43(5), 10–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zhou, W. (1989). 谈四川民族地区的教育体系问题 [A Discussion of Problems in the Education System in Minority Areas of Sichuan]. In H. Chen & Z. Meng (Eds.), 中国民族教育论丛 [Collected Essays on Ethnic Education, Vol. 4] (Vol. 4, pp. 18–38). Beijing: Central University for Nationalities (Minzu Daxue) Press.Google Scholar
  72. Zhou, M. (2005). Legislating Literacy for Linguistic and Ethnic Minorities in Contemporary China. Current Issues in Language Planning, 6(2), 102–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zhou, M., & Hill, A. M. (2010). Affirmative Action in China and the U.S.: A Dialogue on Inequality and Minority Education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan (175 Fifth Avenue, NY 10010. Tel: 888-830-8477; Fax: 800-672-2054). Web site: http://www.palgrave-usa.com. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/822507612?accountid=14707

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emily Hannum
    • 2
  • Chunping Lu
    • 3
  • Peggy A. Kong
    • 4
  • Xiaoran Yu
    • 4
  1. 1.Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human DevelopmentNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.School of Social Development and Public AdministrationNorthwest Normal UniversityLanzhouChina
  4. 4.College of EducationLehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA

Personalised recommendations