Advertisement

Do Vaccines Cause Autism?

  • Matthew Z. Dudley
  • Daniel A. Salmon
  • Neal A. Halsey
  • Walter A. Orenstein
  • Rupali J. Limaye
  • Sean T. O’Leary
  • Saad B. Omer
Chapter

Abstract

Vaccines do not cause autism. The Institute of Medicine (IOM), now called the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), concluded that the body of evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between autism and MMR vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccine. MMR vaccine also prevents rubella disease, thus preventing congenital rubella syndrome and its associated cases of autism.

Keywords

Vaccine Vaccines Vaccinate Vaccination Vaccinations Immunize Immunization Immunizations United States Information Summary Summaries Safety Adverse event Adverse events Adverse effect Adverse effects Association Evidence Causality Autism 

References

  1. 1.
    Institute of Medicine, in Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality, K. Stratton, et al., Editors. 2012, National Academies Press (US): Washington (DC).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Institute of Medicine Immunization Safety Review, C., The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health, in Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. 2004, National Academies Press (US): Washington (DC).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wakefield, A.J., et al., Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet, 1998. 351(9103): p. 637–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Horton, R., A statement by the editors of The Lancet. Lancet, 2004. 363(9411): p. 820–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Murch, S.H., et al., Retraction of an interpretation. Lancet, 2004. 363(9411): p. 750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eggertson, L., Lancet retracts 12-year-old article linking autism to MMR vaccines. Cmaj, 2010. 182(4): p. E199–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Retraction--Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet, 2010. 375(9713): p. 445.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deer, B., Wakefield's "autistic enterocolitis" under the microscope. BMJ, 2010. 340: p. c1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Deer, B., How the case against the MMR vaccine was fixed. BMJ, 2011. 342: p. c5347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Deer, B., Secrets of the MMR scare. How the vaccine crisis was meant to make money. BMJ, 2011. 342: p. c5258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deer, B., Secrets of the MMR scare. The Lancet's two days to bury bad news. BMJ, 2011. 342: p. c7001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Taylor, B., et al., Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: no epidemiological evidence for a causal association. Lancet, 1999. 353(9169): p. 2026–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Taylor, B., et al., Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. BMJ, 2002. 324(7334): p. 393–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Farrington, C.P., E. Miller, and B. Taylor, MMR and autism: further evidence against a causal association. Vaccine, 2001. 19(27): p. 3632–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Madsen, K.M., et al., A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. N Engl J Med, 2002. 347(19): p. 1477–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Smeeth, L., et al., MMR vaccination and pervasive developmental disorders: a case-control study. Lancet, 2004. 364(9438): p. 963–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Makela, A., J.P. Nuorti, and H. Peltola, Neurologic disorders after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Pediatrics, 2002. 110(5): p. 957–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Uno, Y., et al., Early exposure to the combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines and risk of autism spectrum disorder. Vaccine, 2015. 33(21): p. 2511–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jain, A., et al., Autism occurrence by MMR vaccine status among US children with older siblings with and without autism. JAMA, 2015. 313(15): p. 1534–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hviid, A., et al., Association between thimerosal-containing vaccine and autism. JAMA, 2003. 290(13): p. 1763–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Verstraeten, T., et al., Safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a two-phased study of computerized health maintenance organization databases. Pediatrics, 2003. 112(5): p. 1039–48.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Andrews, N., et al., Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a retrospective cohort study in the United kingdom does not support a causal association. Pediatrics, 2004. 114(3): p. 584–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Croen, L.A., et al., Maternal Rh D status, anti-D immune globulin exposure during pregnancy, and risk of autism spectrum disorders. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2008. 199(3): p.234.e1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Price, C.S., et al., Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism. Pediatrics, 2010. 126(4): p. 656–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Uno, Y., et al., The combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and the total number of vaccines are not associated with development of autism spectrum disorder: the first case-control study in Asia. Vaccine, 2012. 30(28): p. 4292–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    DeStefano, F., C.S. Price, and E.S. Weintraub, Increasing exposure to antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines is not associated with risk of autism. J Pediatr, 2013. 163(2): p. 561–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maglione, M.A., et al., Safety of vaccines used for routine immunization of U.S. children: a systematic review. Pediatrics, 2014. 134(2): p. 325–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Parker, S.K., et al., Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data. Pediatrics, 2004. 114(3): p. 793–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schultz, S.T., Does thimerosal or other mercury exposure increase the risk for autism? A review of current literature. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars), 2010. 70(2): p. 187–95.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Institute of Medicine Immunization Safety Review, C., in Immunization Safety Review: Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autism, K. Stratton, et al., Editors. 2001, National Academies Press (US): Washington (DC).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Taylor, L.E., A.L. Swerdfeger, and G.D. Eslick, Vaccines are not associated with autism: an evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Vaccine, 2014. 32(29): p. 3623–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Geier, M.R. and D.A. Geier, Neurodevelopmental disorders after thimerosal-containing vaccines: a brief communication. Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2003. 228(6): p. 660–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Geier, D.A. and M.R. Geier, An assessment of the impact of thimerosal on childhood neurodevelopmental disorders. Pediatr Rehabil, 2003. 6(2): p. 97–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Geier, D. and M.R. Geier, Neurodevelopmental disorders following thimerosal-containing childhood immunizations: a follow-up analysis. Int J Toxicol, 2004. 23(6): p. 369–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Geier, D.A. and M.R. Geier, An evaluation of serious neurological disorders following immunization: a comparison of whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines. Brain Dev, 2004. 26(5): p. 296–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Geier, D.A. and M.R. Geier, A comparative evaluation of the effects of MMR immunization and mercury doses from thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines on the population prevalence of autism. Med Sci Monit, 2004. 10(3): p. Pi33–9.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Geier, D.A. and M.R. Geier, A two-phased population epidemiological study of the safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a follow-up analysis. Med Sci Monit, 2005. 11(4): p. Cr160–70.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Geier, D.A. and M.R. Geier, An evaluation of the effects of thimerosal on neurodevelopmental disorders reported following DTP and Hib vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccine in the United States. J Toxicol Environ Health A, 2006. 69(15): p. 1481–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Geier, D.A. and M.R. Geier, A meta-analysis epidemiological assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders following vaccines administered from 1994 through 2000 in the United States. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 2006. 27(4): p. 401–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Geier, D.A. and M.R. Geier, An assessment of downward trends in neurodevelopmental disorders in the United States following removal of Thimerosal from childhood vaccines. Med Sci Monit, 2006. 12(6): p. Cr231–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Young, H.A., D.A. Geier, and M.R. Geier, Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: an assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. J Neurol Sci, 2008. 271(1–2): p. 110–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kern, J.K., et al., Thimerosal exposure and the role of sulfation chemistry and thiol availability in autism. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2013. 10(8): p. 3771–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Deer, B., Autism research: What makes an expert? BMJ, 2007. 334(7595): p. 666–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zerbo, O., et al., Association Between Influenza Infection and Vaccination During Pregnancy and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder. JAMA Pediatr, 2017. 171(1): p. e163609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Becerra-Culqui, T.A., et al., Prenatal Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pediatrics, 2018.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Halsey, N.A. and S.L. Hyman, Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autistic spectrum disorder: report from the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12–13, 2000. Pediatrics, 2001. 107(5): p. E84.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hornig, M., et al., Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study. PLoS One, 2008. 3(9): p. e3140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Libbey, J.E., et al., Are there altered antibody responses to measles, mumps, or rubella viruses in autism? J Neurovirol, 2007. 13(3): p. 252–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    D'Souza, Y., E. Fombonne, and B.J. Ward, No evidence of persisting measles virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics, 2006. 118(4): p. 1664–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bernard, S., et al., Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning. Med Hypotheses, 2001. 56(4): p. 462–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nelson, K.B. and M.L. Bauman, Thimerosal and autism? Pediatrics, 2003. 111(3): p. 674–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew Z. Dudley
    • 1
  • Daniel A. Salmon
    • 2
  • Neal A. Halsey
    • 3
  • Walter A. Orenstein
    • 4
  • Rupali J. Limaye
    • 5
  • Sean T. O’Leary
    • 6
  • Saad B. Omer
    • 7
  1. 1.Epidemiologist, Institute for Vaccine SafetyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Professor, Departments of International Health and Health, Behavior and SocietyDirector, Institute for Vaccine Safety, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Professor Emeritus, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Professor Emeritus, Department of PediatricsJohns Hopkins School of Medicine, Director Emeritus, Institute for Vaccine Safety, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Professor of Medicine, Pediatrics, Global Health, and EpidemiologyEmory University, Associate Director, Emory Vaccine Center, Director, Center of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (Emory-UGA CEIRS), Former President, National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID)AtlantaUSA
  5. 5.Associate Director for Behavioral Research, Institute for Vaccine SafetyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  6. 6.Associate Professor, Pediatrics-Infectious DiseasesUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineDenverUSA
  7. 7.William H. Foege Professor of Global Health, Professor of Epidemiology and PediatricsEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations