Engagement for What Purpose? Engagement Toward What Outcome? Empowering Engagement for Students from Challenging Backgrounds

  • Clarence Ng
  • Brendan Bartlett
  • Stephen N. Elliott


This final chapter reflects on the discussion throughout this book and provides a summary of what has preceded. It highlights key factors and variables that are essential for developing empowering classroom practices and innovative pedagogical models for promoting learning engagement among students who come from disadvantaged backgrounds or are affected by challenging conditions. The discussion highlights the need for developing practices and supports that create an empowering context for promoting learning engagement for these students. Such a transformative practice is characterized by constant attempts to address personal needs, facilitate the development of cognitive enablers, and manage sociocultural, institutional, and classroom influences and demands in a way that will enable students from at-risk backgrounds to recognize and positively respond to learning opportunities. In this chapter, we point to the need for teachers to be engaged continually in reflective practices in order to develop, evaluate, and improve empowering models and practices aimed at meeting the needs of at-risk students coming from various disadvantaged backgrounds.


Engagement Disengagement Empowerment Disadvantaged students Educational disadvantage Educational marginalization Intervention 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clarence Ng
    • 1
  • Brendan Bartlett
    • 2
  • Stephen N. Elliott
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Learning Sciences & Teacher EducationAustralian Catholic UniversityBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Education & ArtsAustralian Catholic UniversityVirginiaAustralia
  3. 3.Sanford School of Social and Family DynamicsArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

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