Ground-Based and Space-Based Studies of Lower Ionospheric Irregularities: Observation and Modeling

  • Suman Chakraborty
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings book series (ASSSP, volume 53)


Ionosphere acts as a gigantic detector in studying the space weather effects on the Earth’s atmosphere. The phenomena causing such impacts can be broadly classified as terrestrial/local perturbations and extra-terrestrial/non-local perturbations. Both ground-based and space-based studies of such ionospheric irregularities are being conducted for almost a century. Through such rigorous studies, a general picture of the ionosphere and its response to the hostile environment outside is understood. In this article, we will present a detailed historical review on the study of ionospheric irregularities using both ground-based and space-based technologies both from the observational point of view and from the theoretical point of view. At the end, the present scenario and the future aspects will also be discussed.



I would like to acknowledge Prof. Sandip K. Chakrabarti for introducing me to the subject. His continuous showering of new ideas helped me enrich my knowledge and potential. He was my guide during by Ph.D Thesis and I wish he remains my guide throughout my entire academic career. I could not have demanded having a better advisor and mentor besides me than him. I am also thankful to the editors for providing me a chance to contribute to this festschrift.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suman Chakraborty
    • 1
  1. 1.S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic SciencesSalt Lake, KolkataIndia

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