Detector Development and Optimization for Space Based Astronomy from Satellites and Balloons

  • Ritabrata Sarkar
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings book series (ASSSP, volume 53)


The field of experimental X-ray astronomy has undergone a long way since the first observation of extra-terrestrial X-ray dated back to sixties. Several techniques have been developed and used since then for detection of these radiations. There have been numerous missions with various kinds of detectors onboard sounding rockets, scientific balloons or satellite platforms. Several space agencies have been involved in such experiments world wide. In recent years a trend of using light-weight payloads has come through for this purpose, thanks to the technological advancements and miniaturization of instruments. Small payloads in the form of cubesats or nanosats are being used at the orbits. Also light-weight and specially designed payloads are being used onboard meteorological balloons for certain observations on X-ray astronomy. Here is a brief review of some recent developments in this field of instrumentation in X-ray astronomy, particularly in Indian context.



The author wishes to express his most sincere gratitude to Prof. Sandip K. Chakrabarti for his continuous and invaluable guidance throughout the works. The author is also thankful to the LAXPC and CZT-Imager team of the ASTROSAT project and the RT-2 project team. Heartfelt thanks are also due to the members of the scientific ballooning team of Indian Centre for Space Physics.


  1. 1.
    Agostinelli, S., et al.: Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 506, 250–303 (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agrawal, P.C., Paul, B., Rao, A.R., et al.: JKASS 29, S429 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    ASTROSAT – A satellite mission for multi-wavelength astronomy. Cited 12 Apr 2018
  4. 4.
    Bazilevskaya, G.A., Svirzevskaya, A.K.: SpScR 85, 431–521 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bradt, H.V., Rothschild, R.E., Swank, J.H.: A&A Supplement 97, 355–360 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chakrabarti, S.K., Sarkar, R., Bhowmick, D., Bhattacharya, A.: Exp. Astron. 43(3), 311–338 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cook, W.R., Grunsfeld, J.M., Heindl, W.A., et al.: ApJ 372, L75–L78 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Covault, C.E., Grindlay, J.E., Manandhar, R.P.: ApJ 388, L65–L67 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Debnath, D., Nandi, A., Rao, A.R., et al.: ExA 29, 1–25 (2011)ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gaisser, T.K.: Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1990)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Giacconi, R., Gursky, H., Paolini, F.R., Rossi, B.: PhRvL 9, 439–443 (1962)ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harrison, F.A., Cook, W.R., Forster, K., et al.: ApJ 770, 103 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jansen, F., Lumb, D., Altieri, B., et al.: A&A 365, L1–L6 (2001). System. Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 439–443 (1962)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kamae, T., Andersson, V., Arimoto, M., et al.: APh 30, 72–84 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kotoch, T.B., Nandi, A., Debnath, D., et al.: ExA 29, 27–54 (2011)ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kotov, Y.D.: SoSyR 45, 93–96 (2011)ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nandi, A., Palit, S., Debnath, D., et al.: ExA 29, 55–84 (2011)ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Picone, J.M., Hedin, A.E., Drob, D.P., Aikin, A.C.: JGR 107(A12), 1468 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rao, A.R., Malkar, J.P., Hingar, M.K., et al.: SoSyR 45, 123–134 (2011)ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rexus/Bexus - Rocket and Balloon Experiments for University Students. Cited 12 Apr 2018
  21. 21.
    Sarkar, R.: Ph.D. Thesis, Kolkata (India) (2010b)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sarkar, R., Chakrabarti, S.K.: ExA 28, 61–77 (2010a)ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sarkar, R., Mandal, S., Debnath, D., et al.: ExA 29, 85–107 (2011)ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sarkar, R., Chakrabarti, S.K., Pal, P.S., Bhowmick, D., Bhattacharyya, A.: AdSpRes 60, 991–998 (2017)ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sarkar R., Chakrabarti, S.K., Bhowmick, D.: (2018, under preparation)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Singh, K.P., Tandon, S.N., Agrawal, P.C. et al.: ASTROSAT mission. Proc. SPIE 9144, 15 (2014)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Underwood, C.I.: Annual AIAA/Utah State University Conference on Small Satellites, vol. 2, p. 18 (1990)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ritabrata Sarkar
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Centre for Space PhysicsKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations