Advertisement

Policies and Services Affecting Parenting

  • Kylie Burke
  • Divna Haslam
  • Keny Butler
Chapter

Abstract

The health and well-being of families is significantly influenced by government policies and funding that directly and indirectly support the critical role of parenting. Many policies that impact parents’ ability to be present and active in children’s lives stem from changes in social structures and the need to address other issues affecting society, such as the need to create a sustainable and productive workforce, rather than being developed explicitly to meet parents’ needs. As the structures and nature of families have changed, more family-focused policies have emerged to provide direct support to parents and families. The way in which this support is provided to families varies across countries based on a country’s priorities, values and cultural expectations. However, providing assistance to those who are most vulnerable remains a key focus across nations, with welfare, child maltreatment, and health care policies all having an impact on the health and well-being of parents and children. As the importance of parenting has become more widely recognized, parenting-specific policies and initiatives directly targeting the role of parenting have also begun to emerge, with positive outcomes evident for families and the broader community. This chapter provides an overview of such policies that have implications for the role of parenting and the impact that these policies have had on child and family well-being.

Keywords

Policy Family-focused Parenting Policy Services Wellbeing 

Notes

Disclosure

The Parenting and Family Support Centre is partly funded by royalties stemming from published resources of the Triple P—Positive Parenting Program, which is developed and owned by the University of Queensland (UQ). Royalties are also distributed to the Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences at UQ and contributory authors of published Triple P resources. Triple P International (TPI) Pty Ltd. is a private company licensed by UniQuest Pty Ltd. on behalf of UQ, to publish and disseminate Triple P worldwide. The authors of this report have no share or ownership of TPI. Drs. Haslam and Burke receive or may in future receive royalties and/or consultancy fees from TPI. TPI had no involvement in the writing of this chapter. The authors of this chapter are employees at UQ.

References

  1. Abendroth, A.-K., & den Dulk, L. (2011). Support for the work-life balance in Europe: The impact of state, workplace and family support on work-life balance satisfaction. Work, Employment & Society, 25(2), 234–256.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017011398892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2015). National health survey Australia 2014–15. Canberra, ACT: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  3. Australian Institute of Family Studies. (2010). Growing up in Australia: The longitudinal study of Australian Children. In HCS & Indigenous A (Ed.), The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children annual statistical report/Australian Institute of Family Studies. LSAC annual statistical report. Melbourne, VIC: Department of Families.Google Scholar
  4. Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management, 43(1), 83–104.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnett, R. C., Gareis, K. C., & Brennan, R. T. (1999). Fit as a mediator of the relationship between work hours and burnout. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(4), 307.  https://doi.org/10.1037//1076-8998.4.4.307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baxter, J. A., & Renda, J. (2015). Review of government initiatives for reconciling work and family life (Research report no. 34). Melbourne, VIC: Australian Institute of Family Studies.Google Scholar
  7. Berger, L. M., Hill, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2005). Maternity leave, early maternal employment and child health and development in the US*. Economic Journal, 115(501), F29–F47.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0013-0133.2005.00971.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Böckerman, P., & Ilmakunnas, P. (2012). The job satisfaction-productivity nexus: A study using matched survey and register data. ILR Review, 65(2), 244–262.  https://doi.org/10.1177/001979391206500203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brady, M., & Cook, K. (2015). The impact of welfare to work on parents and their children. Evidence Base, 3, 1–23.Google Scholar
  10. Capaldi, D. M., Pears, K. C., Kerr, D. C., & Owen, L. D. (2008). Intergenerational and partner influences on fathers’ negative discipline. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(3), 347–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chung, E. K., Mathew, L., Rothkopf, A. C., Elo, I. T., Coyne, J. C., & Culhane, J. F. (2009). Parenting attitudes and infant spanking: The influence of childhood experiences. Pediatrics, 124(2), e278.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-3247CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ceballo, R., & McLoyd, V. C. (2002). Social support and parenting in poor, dangerous neighborhoods. Child Development, 73(4), 1310–1321.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cullen, S. M., Cullen, M. A., & Lindsay, G. (2017). The CANparent trial—the delivery of universal parenting education in England. British Educational Research Journal, 43(4), 759–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Commonwealth of Australia. (2005). Budget paper no. 2: Budget measures 2005–06. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, ACT.Google Scholar
  15. Department for Children, S. a. F. (2007). The children’s plan: Building brighter futures. UK: Crown Copyright Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-childrens-plan (ISBN 9780101728027, Cm 7280)Google Scholar
  16. Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds welfare capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  17. Estes, S. B. (2005). Work-family arrangements and parenting: Are “family-friendly” arrangements related to mothers’ involvement in children’s lives? Sociological Perspectives, 48(3), 293.  https://doi.org/10.1525/sop.2005.48.3.293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fass, S. (2009). Paid leave in the states: A critical support for low-wage workers and their families. New York, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty.Google Scholar
  19. Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth. (2015). The ElterngeldPlus with partnership bonus and more flexible parental leave. Retrieved from https://www.bmfsfj.de.
  20. Fives, A., Pursell, L., Heary, C., Gabhainn, S., & Canavan, J. (2014). Parenting support for every parent: A population-level evaluation of Triple P in Longford Westmeath: Final report. Retrieved from Athlone.Google Scholar
  21. Glass, J., Simon, R. W., & Andersson, M. A. (2016). Parenthood and happiness: Effects of work-family reconciliation policies in 22 OECD countries. American Journal of Sociology, 122(3), 886–929.  https://doi.org/10.1086/688892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gov. UK. (2016). Prime Minister's Speech on Life Chances [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/prime-ministers-speech-on-life-chances
  23. Halpern, D. F. (2005). How time-flexible work policies can reduce stress, improve health, and save money. Stress and Health, 21(3), 157–168.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harward, B., Fong, B., & Thornton, A. (2007). The third work-life balance employer survey: Executive summary (Employment relations research series no. 86). London: Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform.Google Scholar
  25. Herbst, C. M. (2017). Are parental welfare work requirements good for disadvantaged children? Evidence from age-of-youngest-child exemptions. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 36(2), 327–357.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pam.21971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heymann, J., Earle, A., & Hayes, J. (2008). The work, family, and equity index: How does the United States measure up? Montreal, QC: McGill University, Institute for Health and Social Policy.Google Scholar
  27. Government, H. M. (2003). Every child matters. Nottingham: DfES.Google Scholar
  28. H M Government. (2004). Children act 2004. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  29. Hogarth, T., Hasluck, C., Pierre, G., Winterbotham, M., & Vivian, D. (2000). Work-life balance 2000: Baseline study of work-life balance practises in Great Britain. London: Department for Education and Employment.Google Scholar
  30. Home Office. (2006). Respect taskforce: Respect action plan. London: Author.Google Scholar
  31. Immervoll, H., & Barber, D. (2005). Can parents afford to work? Childcare costs, tax-benefit policies and work incentives. In OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers (Vol. 31, pp. 2–71). Paris: OECD.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.878665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kalliath, T., & Morris, R. (2002). Job satisfaction among nurses: A predictor of burnout levels. Journal of Nursing Administration, 32(12), 648–654.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00005110-200212000-00010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Katz, I., Levine Coley, R., McDermott, S., McPherran, C., & Yaya, I. (2010). A policy framework for parenting: Final report. Report for the Australian Government Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs. Kensington, NSW: University of New South Wales.Google Scholar
  34. Leitner, S., Ostner, I., & Schmitt, C. (2008). Family policies in Germany. In Family policies in the context of family change: The Nordic countries in comparative perspective (pp. 175–202). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-90895-3_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lindsay, G., & Cullen, M. A. (2011). Evaluation of the Parenting Early Intervention Programme: A short report to inform local commissioning processes (Research report DFE-RR121 (b)). Coventry: Department for Education.Google Scholar
  36. Lindsay, G., Cullen, M. A., Cullen, S., Totsika, V., Bakopoulou, I., Goodlad, S., … Purdon, S. (2014). CANparent Trial Evaluation: Final Report Research report. Coventry: Department for Education.Google Scholar
  37. Lindsay, G., & Strand, S. (2013). Evaluation of the national roll-out of parenting programmes across England: The parenting early intervention programme (PEIP). BMC Public Health, 13(1), 972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Maguire-Jack, K., & Klein, S. (2015). Parenting and proximity to social services: Lessons from Los Angeles County in the community context of child neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 45, 35–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.04.020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Morrato, E. H., Elias, M., & Gericke, C. A. (2007). Using population-based routine data for evidence-based health policy decisions: lessons from three examples of setting and evaluating national health policy in Australia, the UK and the USA. Journal of Public Health, 29(4), 463–471.  https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdm065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. OECD. (2011). Doing better for families. Paris: OECD Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264098732-enCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. OECD. (2016). Society at a glance. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  42. Ostner, I. (2010). Farewell to the family as we know it: Family policy change in Germany. In German Policy Studies (Vol. 6, pp. 211–246). New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  43. Pollack, H. A., & Frohna, J. G. (2002). Infant sleep placement after the back to sleep campaign. Pediatrics, 109(4), 608–614.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.109.4.608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Prinz, R., Sanders, M., Shapiro, C., Whitaker, D., & Lutzker, J. (2009). Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P system population trial. Prevention Science, 10(1), 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-009-0123-3CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ruhm, C. J. (2011). Policies to assist parents with young children. The Future of Children/Center for the Future of Children, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Los Altos, CA, 21(2), 37.Google Scholar
  46. Rynell, A. (2008). Causes of poverty: Findings from recent research. New York, NY: IssueLab.Google Scholar
  47. Sanders, M. R., & Burke, K. (2018). Towards a comprehensive, evidence-based system of parenting support over the life span. In M. R. Sanders & A. Morawska (Eds.), Handbook of parenting and child development across the lifespan (pp. 777–798). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  48. Schott, L. (2009). An introduction to TANF. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.Google Scholar
  49. Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (2011). SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. American Academy of Paediatrics, 128(5), e1341–e1367.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-2220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. The Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education. (2013). The Australian fetal alcohol spectrum disorders action plan. Deakin, ACT: The Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education.Google Scholar
  51. US Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: A report of the surgeon general (Vol. 709). Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  52. US Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the surgeon general (Vol. 3). Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  53. Walsh, J. (2011). Failing its families: Lack of paid leave and work-family supports in the US. New York, NY: Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
  54. Weldon-Johns, M. (2013). EU work–family policies—challenging parental roles or reinforcing gendered stereotypes? European Law Journal, 19(5), 662–681.  https://doi.org/10.1111/eulj.12022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. White, V., Hill, D., Siahpush, M., & Bobevski, I. (2003). How has the prevalence of cigarette smoking changed among Australian adults? Trends in smoking prevalence between 1980 and 2001. Tobacco Control, 12(Suppl. II), 67–74.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Parenting and Family Support Centre, School of PsychologyThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations