Policy of Intensification, Diversification, Conservation, and Indexation in Pursuing Sustainable Transport

  • Koesmawan
Part of the Innovative Renewable Energy book series (INREE)


The Indonesian government has announced at least two regulations in energy policy, consisting of Law No. 30/2007 and Government Regulation No. 79/2014. Two provisions relate to national energy policy (NEP) and sustainable energy needs. The energy utilization paradigm has also changed. Formerly, energy was considered an export commodity as a part of state revenue, but now energy is crucial development capital to improve the people’s welfare.

New and renewable energy (NER) has been outlined in the General Planning of Energy. From now to 2020 has been targeted at 135 gigawatts (GW), which is compulsory, and the figure of 45 GW should be covered by new and renewable energy (NRE). With a contribution of 45 GW, that means NRE has contributed 23% to the total national capacity; the rest is fueled by other energy, that is, oil, gas, and coal, with almost the same contributions at 25%, 22%, and 30%, respectively. Geothermal 7.2 GW, hydro 17.9 GW, micro-hydro 3 GW, solar 6.5 GW, wind 1.8 GW, and other sources at 3 GW are all government targets.

Of course, it is not easy to realize practically all the targets. There are many challenges to face. Some concerns are how to have the same thinking pattern in the development of new and renewable energy among institutions. Another problem is that intensive business schemes are not yet optimal. Also, technology is still dependent on other countries; consequently, the level of domestic or local content is still small. Therefore, at this time renewable energy is still expensive, but in the future this restriction can be overcome so that it will be cheaper than fossil fuel energy.

Furthermore, this chapter discusses another issue that requires the preparation of a large amount of sustainable energy for transportation, which of course must be in line with attention to the concept of eco-energy. Thus, the right choice for transportation problems for all fuel vehicles, especially cars and motorbikes, must be bio-energy; however, we have used bio-diesel and applied it long term. In addition, bio-gas is included in selecting sustainability transport with eco-energy orientation. The type of transport vehicles such as by land, sea, and air must be well considered.


Regulation General planning Eco-energy Bio-gas Bio-ethanol Forum Topics: Sustainable Transport 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koesmawan
    • 1
  1. 1.The Commisssioner of FID, Indonesian Energy Consultant and The Chairman of Quality AssuranceAhmad Dahlan School of EconomicsJakartaIndonesia

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