History of Crime and Violence
This chapter traces the history of crime and violence and their interaction in the formulation of sophisticated, global illicit markets. It conceptualizes violence as an important tool of the underworld to enforce contracts, eliminate rivals, communicate and, ultimately, to coerce others. The chapter highlights specific cases such as the history of prohibition, the Italian-American mafia, and other organized criminal groups, to demonstrate the use of violence in the criminal underworld. It also explores new, technological developments in the criminal landscape, such as the use of the Dark Web and Bitcoin.