Advertisement

Enteric Hepatitis Viruses: Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus

  • Mohammad Sultan Khuroo
  • Mehnaaz S. Khuroo
  • Naira S. Khuroo
Chapter

Abstract

Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis A has a global distribution with endemicity inversely proportional to higher socioeconomic conditions and standards of sanitation and hygiene. Hepatitis A virus infection is predominantly spread directly from one person to another through orofecal transmission and through contaminated food and water. The clinical outcome is strongly correlated with age, being mostly subclinical in young children and symptomatic in older children and adults. Hepatitis A vaccine is safe, highly immunogenic and protective against clinical hepatitis A.

Hepatitis E is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis E virus. Hepatitis E is the most common cause of large-scale waterborne epidemics of jaundice in developing countries. In addition, around a third to a half of endemic acute viral hepatitis in these countries is caused by hepatitis E. The disease has high incidence and severity in pregnant women. Recently, hepatitis E is being recognized as an important clinical problem in the industrialized world that is related to unique zoonotic foodborne transmission. Hepatitis E in these countries has particular relevance to the solid organ transplant population due to risk of progression of infection to chronic hepatitis E and cirrhosis with liver failure and death in such patients. Hepatitis E causes a number of extrahepatic manifestations including a wide spectrum of neurological syndromes. Hepatitis E virus can be transmitted through blood and blood component transfusions, and donor screening is being done in many countries. There has been a significant advance in drug treatment of chronic hepatitis E and the availability of hepatitis E vaccine promises control of the hepatitis E burden in future.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by “Dr. Khuroo’s Medical Trust” a non-profit organization which supports academic activities, disseminates medical education and helps poor patients for medical treatment.

Disclosure: All authors have nothing to disclose.

References

  1. 1.
    Zuckerman AJ. Hepatitis viruses. In: Baron S, editor. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. Galveston, TX: University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996. p. 1–169.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Krugman S. The Gordon Wilson Lecture. The ABC’s of viral hepatitis. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 1992;103:145–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heathcote E, Feld J. Hepatitis caused by other viruses. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, editors. Sleisinger & Fordtran’s gastrointestinal and liver disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2006. p. 1719–29.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khuroo MS. Discovery of hepatitis G virus. Ann Saudi Med. 1997;17(2):209–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kapoor A, Kumar A, Simmonds P, Bhuva N, Singh Chauhan L, Lee B, et al. Virome analysis of transfusion recipients reveals a novel human virus that shares genomic features with hepaciviruses and pegiviruses. mBio. 2015;6(5):e01466-15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berg MG, Lee D, Coller K, Frankel M, Aronsohn A, Cheng K, et al. Discovery of a novel human pegivirus in blood associated with hepatitis C virus co-Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11(12):e1005325.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wood NJ. Viral hepatitis: progress and promise. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;8(5):239.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stanaway JD, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, Fitzmaurice C, Vos T; Abubakar I; Abu-Raddad LJ, et al. The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2016;388:1081–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    WHO. Combating hepatitis B and C to reach elimination by 2030. Advocacy brief. Switzerland, May 2016. p. 1–20. www.who.int/hepatitis/publications.
  10. 10.
    Tahaei SM, Mohebbi SR, Zali MR. Enteric hepatitis viruses. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2012;5(1):7–15.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lemon SN. Type A viral hepatitis: epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention. Clin Chem. 1997;43(8(B)):1494–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Purcell RH. The discovery of the hepatitis viruses. Gastroenterology. 1993;104(4):955–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    MacCallum FO. Homologous serum jaundice. Lancet. 1947;250(6480):691–2.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krugman S, Giles JP, Hammond J. Infectious hepatitis. Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological, and immunological types of infection. JAMA. 1967;200(5):365–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dienstag JL, Purcell RH. Recent advances in the identification of hepatitis viruses. Postgrad Med J. 1977;53(621):364–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Feinstone SM, Kapikian AZ, Purcell RH. Hepatitis A: detection by immune electron microscopy of a viruslike antigen associated with acute illness. Science. 1973;182(4116):1026–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Provost PJ, Wolanski BS, Miller WJ, Ittensohn OL, McAleer WJ, Hilleman MR. Physical, chemical and morphologic dimensions of human hepatitis A virus strain CR326 (38578). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1975;148(2):532–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martin A, Lemon SM. Hepatitis A virus: from discovery to vaccines. Hepatology. 2006;43(2 Suppl 1):S164–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Purcell RH. Hepatitis viruses: changing patterns of human disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91(7):2401–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nainan OV, Xia G, Vaughan G, Margolis HS. Diagnosis of hepatitis a virus infection: a molecular approach. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006;19(1):63–79.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Siegl G. Replication of hepatitis A virus and processing of proteins. Vaccine. 1992;10(Suppl 1):S32–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gust ID. Epidemiological patterns of hepatitis A in different parts of the world. Vaccine. 1992;10(Suppl 1):S56–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jacobsen KH, Wiersma ST. Hepatitis A virus seroprevalence by age and world region, 1990 and 2005. Vaccine. 2010;28(41):6653–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    WHO. The global prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection and susceptibility: a systematic review. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals; 2009.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    WHO. WHO position papers on HAV vaccines, June 2012. Weekly Epidemiological Record; 2012.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim YJ, Lee HS. Increasing incidence of hepatitis A in Korean adults. Intervirology. 2010;53(1):10–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Munne MS, Vladimirsky S, Moreiro R, Ciocca M, Cuarterolo M, Otegui L, et al. Molecular characterization of hepatitis A virus in children with fulminant hepatic failure in Argentina. Liver Int. 2008;28(1):47–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Santos DC, Martinho JM, Pacheco-Moreira LF, Araujo CC, Oliveira BC, Lago BV, et al. Fulminant hepatitis failure in adults and children from a Public Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2009;13(5):323–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Collier MG, Khudyakov YE, Selvage D, Adams-Cameron M, Epson E, Cronquist A, et al. Outbreak of hepatitis A in the USA associated with frozen pomegranate arils imported from Turkey: an epidemiological case study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14(10):976–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wheeler C, Vogt TM, Armstrong GL, Vaughan G, Weltman A, Nainan OV, et al. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(9):890–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Centers for Disease C, Prevention. Hepatitis A outbreak associated with green onions at a restaurant—Monaca, Pennsylvania, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003;52(47):1155–7.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Centers for Disease C, Prevention. Foodborne transmission of hepatitis A—Massachusetts, 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003;52(24):565–7.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mohd Hanafiah K, Jacobsen KH, Wiersma ST. Challenges to mapping the health risk of hepatitis A virus infection. Int J Health Geogr. 2011;10:57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fiore AE. Hepatitis A transmitted by food. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(5):705–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sanchez G. Processing strategies to inactivate hepatitis A virus in food products: a critical review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2015;14(6):771–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Halliday ML, Kang LY, Zhou TK, Hu MD, Pan QC, Fu TY, et al. An epidemic of hepatitis A attributable to the ingestion of raw clams in Shanghai, China. J Infect Dis. 1991;164(5):852–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hansman GS, Oka T, Li TC, Nishio O, Noda M, Takeda N. Detection of human enteric viruses in Japanese clams. J Food Prot. 2008;71(8):1689–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Amri I, Hmaied F, Loisy F, Lebeau B, Barkallah I, Saidi M, et al. [Hepatitis A virus detection in shellfish from Tunisia by reverse transcription-nested PCR—investigation of a correlation between viral and bacterial contamination]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2011;59(4):217–21.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cooksley WG. What did we learn from the Shanghai hepatitis A epidemic? J Viral Hepat. 2000;7(Suppl 1):1–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chironna M, Lopalco P, Prato R, Germinario C, Barbuti S, Quarto M. Outbreak of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) associated with a foodhandler and confirmed by sequence analysis reveals a new HAV genotype IB variant. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42(6):2825–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Behrens RH, Collins M, Botto B, Heptonstall J. Risk for British travellers of acquiring hepatitis A. BMJ. 1995;311(6998):193.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hollinger FB, Khan NC, Oefinger PE, Yawn DH, Schmulen AC, Dreesman GR, et al. Posttransfusion hepatitis type A. JAMA. 1983;250(17):2313–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    O’Donovan D, Cooke RP, Joce R, Eastbury A, Waite J, Stene-Johansen K. An outbreak of hepatitis A amongst injecting drug users. Epidemiol Infect. 2001;127(3):469–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Corey L, Holmes KK. Sexual transmission of hepatitis A in homosexual men: incidence and mechanism. N Engl J Med. 1980;302(8):435–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lankarani KB, Mahmoodi M, Honarvar B, Nematollahi P, Zamiri N, Ghaffarpasand F. Determinants of poor outcome in patients with hepatitis A infection: a four-year retrospective study in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Arch Virol. 2014;159(8):1901–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ciocca M. Clinical course and complications of hepatitis A infection. Vaccine. 2000;18(Suppl 1):S71–S4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gordon SC, Reddy KR, Schiff L, Schiff ER. Prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis secondary to acute hepatitis A. Ann Intern Med. 1984;101(5):635–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Glikson M, Galun E, Oren R, Tur-Kaspa R, Shouval D. Relapsing hepatitis A. Review of 14 cases and literature survey. Medicine (Baltimore). 1992;71(1):14–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sjogren MH, Tanno H, Fay O, Sileoni S, Cohen BD, Burke DS, et al. Hepatitis A virus in stool during clinical relapse. Ann Intern Med. 1987;106(2):221–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Khuroo MS. Acute liver failure in India. Hepatology. 1997;26(1):244–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Brown GR, Persley K. Hepatitis A epidemic in the elderly. South Med J. 2002;95(8):826–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Vento S, Garofano T, Renzini C, Cainelli F, Casali F, Ghironzi G, et al. Fulminant hepatitis associated with hepatitis A virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(5):286–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Willner IR, Uhl MD, Howard SC, Williams EQ, Riely CA, Waters B. Serious hepatitis A: an analysis of patients hospitalized during an urban epidemic in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128(2):111–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ilan Y, Hillman M, Oren R, Zlotogorski A, Shouval D. Vasculitis and cryoglobulinemia associated with persisting cholestatic hepatitis A virus infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 1990;85(5):586–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tagle Arrospide M, Leon Barua R. [Viral hepatitis A as a triggering agent of autoimmune hepatitis report of a case and review of literature]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru. 2003;23(2):134–7.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dienstag JL. Acute viral hepatitis. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo JL, editors. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 17th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.; 2008. p. 1932–49.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kao HW, Ashcavai M, Redeker AG. The persistence of hepatitis A IgM antibody after acute clinical hepatitis A. Hepatology. 1984;4(5):933–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Liaw YF, Yang CY, Chu CM, Huang MJ. Appearance and persistence of hepatitis A IgM antibody in acute clinical hepatitis A observed in an outbreak. Infection. 1986;14(4):156–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hoofnagle JH, Di Bisceglie AM. Serologic diagnosis of acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Semin Liver Dis. 1991;11(2):73–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yotsuyanagi H, Iino S, Koike K, Yasuda K, Hino K, Kurokawa K. Duration of viremia in human hepatitis A viral infection as determined by polymerase chain reaction. J Med Virol. 1993;40(1):35–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Coppola N, Genovese D, Pisaturo M, Taffon S, Argentini C, Pasquale G, et al. Acute hepatitis with severe cholestasis and prolonged clinical course due to hepatitis A virus Ia and Ib coinfection. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(9):e73–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    William R. Classification, etiology and considerations of outcome in acute liver failure. Semin Liver Dis. 1996;16:343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fiore A, Baxter LC, Bell BP, Hershow R, Passaro D, Twiddy S, et al. Hepatitis A 2004 vaccination in children: methods and findings of a survey in two states. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33(4):346–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Advisory Committee on Immunization P, Fiore AE, Wasley A, Bell BP. Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55(RR-7):1–23.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 1996;45(RR-15):1–30.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Abarca K, Ibanez I, Perret C, Vial P, Zinsou JA. Immunogenicity, safety, and interchangeability of two inactivated hepatitis A vaccines in Chilean children. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12(3):270–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Demicheli V, Tiberti D. The effectiveness and safety of hepatitis A vaccine: a systematic review. Vaccine. 2003;21(19–20):2242–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Aristegui J, Morales JL, Dal-Re R, Gonzalez A, Gallego MS, Garrote E. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in children 2 to 5 years old. Infection. 1995;23(5):334–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Arnal JM, Frisas O, Garuz R, Antonanzas F. Cost effectiveness of hepatitis A virus immunisation in Spain. Pharmacoeconomics. 1997;12(3):361–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wolfe MS. Hepatitis A and the American traveler. J Infect Dis. 1995;171(Suppl 1):S29–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Blanco Fernandez MD, Torres C, Riviello-Lopez G, Poma HR, Rajal VB, Nates S, et al. Analysis of the circulation of hepatitis A virus in Argentina since vaccine introduction. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18(12):E548–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Briem H, Safary A. Immunogenicity and safety in adults of hepatitis A virus vaccine administered as a single dose with a booster 6 months later. J Med Virol. 1994;44(4):443–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Van Damme P, Mathei C, Thoelen S, Meheus A, Safary A, Andre FE. Single dose inactivated hepatitis A vaccine: rationale and clinical assessment of the safety and immunogenicity. J Med Virol. 1994;44(4):435–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mao JS, Chai SA, Xie RY, Chen NL, Jiang Q, Zhu XZ, et al. Further evaluation of the safety and protective efficacy of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H2-strain) in humans. Vaccine. 1997;15(9):944–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Belmaker I, Dukhan L, Yosef Y, Leventhal A, Dagan R. Elimination of hepatitis a infection outbreaks in day care and school settings in southern Israel after introduction of the national universal toddler hepatitis a immunization program. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(1):36–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fangcheng Z, Xuanyi W, Mingding C, Liming J, Jie W, Qi J, et al. Era of vaccination heralds a decline in incidence of hepatitis A in high-risk groups in China. Hepat Mon. 2012;12(2):100–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Dagan R, Leventhal A, Anis E, Slater P, Ashur Y, Shouval D. Incidence of hepatitis A in Israel following universal immunization of toddlers. JAMA. 2005;294(2):202–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hanna JN, Warnock TH, Shepherd RW, Selvey LA. Fulminant hepatitis A in indigenous children in north Queensland. Med J Aust. 2000;172(1):19–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Victor JC, Monto AS, Surdina TY, Suleimenova SZ, Vaughan G, Nainan OV, et al. Hepatitis A vaccine versus immune globulin for postexposure prophylaxis. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(17):1685–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rein DB, Stevens GA, Theaker J, Wittenborn JS, Wiersma ST. The global burden of hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 2 in 2005. Hepatology. 2012;55(4):988–97.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Khuroo MS, Khuroo MS, Khuroo NS, Hepatitis E. Discovery, global impact, control and cure. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22(31):7030–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Khuroo MS. Discovery of hepatitis E—the untold story. JK-Practitioner. 2004;11(3):291–4.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Khuroo MS, Kamili S, Khuroo MS, Al Ashgar H. Hepatitis E. In: Al Knawy B, Shiffman ML, Wiesner RL, editors. Hepatology: a practical approach. Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V.; 2004.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Khuroo MS. Study of an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis. Possibility of another human hepatitis virus distinct from post-transfusion non-A, non-B type. Am J Med. 1980;68(6):818–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Khuroo MS, Rustgi VK, Dawson GJ, Mushahwar IK, Yattoo GN, Kamili S, et al. Spectrum of hepatitis E virus infection in India. J Med Virol. 1994;43(3):281–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Khuroo MS, Khuroo MS. Seroepidemiology of a second epidemic of hepatitis E in a population that had recorded first epidemic 30 years before and has been under surveillance since then. Hepatol Int. 2010;4(2):494–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Khuroo MS, Teli MR, Skidmore S, Sofi MA, Khuroo MI. Incidence and severity of viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Am J Med. 1981;70(2):252–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Khuroo MS, Kamili S. Aetiology, clinical course and outcome of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in pregnancy. J Viral Hepat. 2003;10(1):61–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Khuroo MS, Kamili S, Jameel S. Vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus. Lancet. 1995;345(8956):1025–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Khuroo MS, Kamili S, Khuroo MS. Clinical course and duration of viremia in vertically transmitted hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in babies born to HEV-infected mothers. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16(7):519–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Khuroo MS, Saleem M, Teli MR, Sofi MA. Failure to detect chronic liver disease after epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis. Lancet. 1980;2(8185):97–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Khuroo MS, Duermeyer W, Zargar SA, Ahanger MA, Shah MA. Acute sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis in India. Am J Epidemiol. 1983;118(3):360–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Balayan MS, Andjaparidze AG, Savinskaya SS, Ketiladze ES, Braginsky DM, Savinov AP, et al. Evidence for a virus in non-A, non-B hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Intervirology. 1983;20(1):23–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jameel S, Durgapal H, Habibullah CM, Khuroo MS, Panda SK. Enteric non-A, non-B hepatitis: epidemics, animal transmission, and hepatitis E virus detection by the polymerase chain reaction. J Med Virol. 1992;37(4):263–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kane MA, Bradley DW, Shrestha SM, Maynard JE, Cook EH, Mishra RP, et al. Epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis in Nepal. Recovery of a possible etiologic agent and transmission studies in marmosets. JAMA. 1984;252(22):3140–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Bradley DW, Balayan MS. Virus of enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Lancet. 1988;1(8589):819.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Reyes GR, Purdy MA, Kim JP, Luk KC, Young LM, Fry KE, et al. Isolation of a cDNA from the virus responsible for enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Science. 1990;247(4948):1335–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tam AW, Smith MM, Guerra ME, Huang CC, Bradley DW, Fry KE, et al. Hepatitis E virus (HEV): molecular cloning and sequencing of the full-length viral genome. Virology. 1991;185(1):120–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Yarbough PO, Tam AW, Fry KE, Krawczynski K, McCaustland KA, Bradley DW, et al. Hepatitis E virus: identification of type-common epitopes. J Virol. 1991;65(11):5790–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pavio N, Meng XJ, Renou C. Zoonotic hepatitis E: animal reservoirs and emerging risks. Vet Res. 2010;41(6):46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Smith DB, Simmonds P, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Hepeviridae Study G, Jameel S, Emerson SU, Harrison TJ, et al. Consensus proposals for classification of the family Hepeviridae. J Gen Virol. 2014;95(Pt 10):2223–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Emerson SU, Arankalle VA, Purcell RH. Thermal stability of hepatitis E virus. J Infect Dis. 2005;192(5):930–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ahmad I, Holla RP, Jameel S. Molecular virology of hepatitis E virus. Virus Res. 2011;161(1):47–58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Reyes GR, Huang CC, Tam AW, Purdy MA. Molecular organization and replication of hepatitis E virus (HEV). Arch Virol Suppl. 1993;7:15–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Cao D, Meng XJ. Molecular biology and replication of hepatitis E virus. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2012;1(8):e17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Khuroo MS, Khuroo MS. Hepatitis E: an emerging global disease—from discovery towards control and cure. J Viral Hepat. 2016;23(2):68–79.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Aggarwal R, Naik S. Epidemiology of hepatitis E: current status. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24(9):1484–93.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Khuroo MS, Hepatitis E. the enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Indian J Gastroenterol. 1991;10(3):96–100.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Arankalle VA, Paranjape S, Emerson SU, Purcell RH, Walimbe AM. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus isolates from India (1976–1993). J Gen Virol. 1999;80(Pt 7):1691–700.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Panda SK, Thakral D, Rehman S. Hepatitis E virus. Rev Med Virol. 2007;17(3):151–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ghabrah TM, Stickland GT, Tsarev S, Yarbough P, Farci P, Engle R, et al. Acute viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia: seroepidemiological analysis, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and evidence for a sixth hepatitis agent. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21(3):621–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Dai X, Dong C, Zhou Z, Liang J, Dong M, Yang Y, et al. Hepatitis E virus genotype 4, Nanjing, China, 2001–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(9):1528–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Delarocque-Astagneau E, Abravanel F, Moshen A, Le Fouler L, Gad RR, El-Daly M, et al. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of symptomatic acute hepatitis E in Greater Cairo, Egypt. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18(10):982–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Blackard JT, Rouster SD, Nady S, Galal G, Marzuuk N, Rafaat MM, et al. Genotypic characterization of symptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Egypt. J Clin Virol. 2009;46(2):140–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pischke S, Heim A, Bremer B, Raupach R, Horn-Wichmann R, Ganzenmueller T, et al. Hepatitis E: an emerging infectious disease in Germany? Z Gastroenterol. 2011;49(9):1255–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kamar N, Izopet J, Rostaing L. Hepatitis E virus infection. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013;29(3):271–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mansuy JM, Peron JM, Abravanel F, Poirson H, Dubois M, Miedouge M, et al. Hepatitis E in the south west of France in individuals who have never visited an endemic area. J Med Virol. 2004;74(3):419–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Meng XJ. From barnyard to food table: the omnipresence of hepatitis E virus and risk for zoonotic infection and food safety. Virus Res. 2011;161(1):23–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Naik SR, Aggarwal R, Salunke PN, Mehrotra NN. A large waterborne viral hepatitis E epidemic in Kanpur, India. Bull World Health Organ. 1992;70(5):597–604.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tandon BN, Gandhi BM, Joshi YK, Irshad M, Gupta H. Hepatitis virus non-A, non-B: the cause of a major public health problem in India. Bull World Health Organ. 1985;63(5):931–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Teshale EH, Grytdal SP, Howard C, Barry V, Kamili S, Drobeniuc J, et al. Evidence of person-to-person transmission of hepatitis E virus during a large outbreak in Northern Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(7):1006–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Khuroo MS, Dar MY, Hepatitis E. evidence for person-to-person transmission and inability of low dose immune serum globulin from an Indian source to prevent it. Indian J Gastroenterol. 1992;11(3):113–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Aggarwal R. Hepatitis E virus and person-to-person transmission. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51(4):477–8; author reply 8–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Yugo DM, Meng XJ. Hepatitis E virus: foodborne, waterborne and zoonotic transmission. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(10):4507–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Miyashita K, Kang JH, Saga A, Takahashi K, Shimamura T, Yasumoto A, et al. Three cases of acute or fulminant hepatitis E caused by ingestion of pork meat and entrails in Hokkaido, Japan: zoonotic food-borne transmission of hepatitis E virus and public health concerns. Hepatol Res. 2012;42(9):870–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Colson P, Borentain P, Queyriaux B, Kaba M, Moal V, Gallian P, et al. Pig liver sausage as a source of hepatitis E virus transmission to humans. J Infect Dis. 2010;202(6):825–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Garbuglia AR, Alessandrini AI, Pavio N, Tesse S, Grignolo S, Viscoli C, et al. Male patient with acute hepatitis E in Genoa, Italy: figatelli (pork liver sausage) as probable source of the infection. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015;21(1):e4–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Shukla P, Chauhan UK, Naik S, Anderson D, Aggarwal R. Hepatitis E virus infection among animals in northern India: an unlikely source of human disease. J Viral Hepat. 2007;14(5):310–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Arankalle VA, Chobe LP, Joshi MV, Chadha MS, Kundu B, Walimbe AM. Human and swine hepatitis E viruses from Western India belong to different genotypes. J Hepatol. 2002;36(3):417–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Woo PC, Lau SK, Teng JL, Tsang AK, Joseph M, Wong EY, et al. New hepatitis E virus genotype in camels, the Middle East. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(6):1044–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Rasche A, Saqib M, Liljander AM, Bornstein S, Zohaib A, Renneker S, et al. Hepatitis E virus infection in dromedaries, North and East Africa, United Arab Emirates, and Pakistan, 1983–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(7):1249–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Zhuang H, Cao XY, Liu CB, Wang GM. Epidemiology of hepatitis E in China. Gastroenterol Jpn. 1991;26(Suppl 3):135–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Aye TT, Uchida T, Ma XZ, Iida F, Shikata T, Zhuang H, et al. Complete nucleotide sequence of a hepatitis E virus isolated from the Xinjiang epidemic (1986–1988) of China. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20(13):3512.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Khuroo MS, Kamili S, Yattoo GN. Hepatitis E virus infection may be transmitted through blood transfusions in an endemic area. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;19(7):778–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Matsubayashi K, Nagaoka Y, Sakata H, Sato S, Fukai K, Kato T, et al. Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E caused by apparently indigenous hepatitis E virus strain in Hokkaido, Japan. Transfusion. 2004;44(6):934–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Matsubayashi K, Kang JH, Sakata H, Takahashi K, Shindo M, Kato M, et al. A case of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E caused by blood from a donor infected with hepatitis E virus via zoonotic food-borne route. Transfusion. 2008;48(7):1368–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hewitt PE, Ijaz S, Brailsford SR, Brett R, Dicks S, Haywood B, et al. Hepatitis E virus in blood components: a prevalence and transmission study in southeast England. Lancet. 2014;384(9956):1766–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Fukuda S, Sunaga J, Saito N, Fujimura K, Itoh Y, Sasaki M, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus among Japanese blood donors: identification of three blood donors infected with a genotype 3 hepatitis E virus. J Med Virol. 2004;73(4):554–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Vollmer T, Diekmann J, Johne R, Eberhardt M, Knabbe C, Dreier J. Novel approach for detection of hepatitis E virus infection in German blood donors. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50(8):2708–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Holm DK, Moessner BK, Engle RE, Zaaijer HL, Georgsen J, Purcell RH, et al. Declining prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies among Danish blood donors. Transfusion. 2015;55(7):1662–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Juhl D, Baylis SA, Blumel J, Gorg S, Hennig H. Seroprevalence and incidence of hepatitis E virus infection in German blood donors. Transfusion. 2014;54(1):49–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Khuroo MS. Association of severity of hepatitis E virus infection in the mother and vertically transmitted infection in the fetus. JK-Practitioner. 2006;13(2):70–4.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Bose PD, Das BC, Hazam RK, Kumar A, Medhi S, Kar P. Evidence of extrahepatic replication of hepatitis E virus in human placenta. J Gen Virol. 2014;95(Pt 6):1266–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Chibber RM, Usmani MA, Al-Sibai MH. Should HEV infected mothers breast feed? Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2004;270(1):15–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lee GH, Tan BH, Chi-Yuan Teo E, Lim SG, Dan YY, Wee A, et al. Chronic infection with camelid hepatitis E virus in a liver transplant recipient who regularly consumes camel meat and milk. Gastroenterology. 2016;150(2):355–7.e3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Huang F, Li Y, Yu W, Jing S, Wang J, Long F, et al. Excretion of infectious hepatitis E virus into milk in cows imposes high risks of zoonosis. Hepatology. 2016;64(2):350–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ucar E, Cetin M, Kuvandik C, Helvaci MR, Gullu M, Huzmeli C. [Hepatitis E virus seropositivity in hemodialysis patients in Hatay province, Turkey]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2009;43(2):299–302.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Siddiqui AR, Jooma RA, Smego RA Jr. Nosocomial outbreak of hepatitis E infection in Pakistan with possible parenteral transmission. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40(6):908–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ola SO, Odaibo GN, Olaleye OD, Ayoola EA. Hepatitis B and E viral infections among Nigerian healthcare workers. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2012;41(4):387–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Robson SC, Adams S, Brink N, Woodruff B, Bradley D. Hospital outbreak of hepatitis E. Lancet. 1992;339(8806):1424–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Pawlotsky JM, Belec L, Gresenguet G, Deforges L, Bouvier M, Duval J, et al. High prevalence of hepatitis B, C, and E markers in young sexually active adults from the Central African Republic. J Med Virol. 1995;46(3):269–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Keane F, Gompels M, Bendall R, Drayton R, Jennings L, Black J, et al. Hepatitis E virus coinfection in patients with HIV infection. HIV Med. 2012;13(1):83–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Chauhan A, Jameel S, Dilawari JB, Chawla YK, Kaur U, Ganguly NK. Hepatitis E virus transmission to a volunteer. Lancet. 1993;341(8838):149–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Khuroo MS, Kamili S. Aetiology and prognostic factors in acute liver failure in India. J Viral Hepat. 2003;10(3):224–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hamid SS, Atiq M, Shehzad F, Yasmeen A, Nissa T, Salam A, et al. Hepatitis E virus superinfection in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology. 2002;36(2):474–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Kumar Acharya S, Kumar Sharma P, Singh R, Kumar Mohanty S, Madan K, Kumar Jha J, et al. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients with cirrhosis is associated with rapid decompensation and death. J Hepatol. 2007;46(3):387–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Ramachandran J, Eapen CE, Kang G, Abraham P, Hubert DD, Kurian G, et al. Hepatitis E superinfection produces severe decompensation in patients with chronic liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;19(2):134–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Radha Krishna Y, Saraswat VA, Das K, Himanshu G, Yachha SK, Aggarwal R, et al. Clinical features and predictors of outcome in acute hepatitis A and hepatitis E virus hepatitis on cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2009;29(3):392–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Khuroo MS. Discovery of hepatitis E: the epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis 30 years down the memory lane. Virus Res. 2011;161(1):3–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Izopet J, Kamar N. [Hepatitis E: from zoonotic transmission to chronic infection in immunosuppressed patients]. Med Sci (Paris). 2008;24(12):1023–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Yamamoto T, Suzuki H, Toyota T, Takahashi M, Okamoto H. Three male patients with sporadic acute hepatitis E in Sendai, Japan, who were domestically infected with hepatitis E virus of genotype III or IV. J Gastroenterol. 2004;39(3):292–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Khuroo MS, Khuroo MS. Hepatitis E virus. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21(5):539–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kamar N, Selves J, Mansuy JM, Ouezzani L, Peron JM, Guitard J, et al. Hepatitis E virus and chronic hepatitis in organ-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(8):811–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Kamar N, Mansuy JM, Cointault O, Selves J, Abravanel F, Danjoux M, et al. Hepatitis E virus-related cirrhosis in kidney- and kidney-pancreas-transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2008;8(8):1744–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Kamar N, Garrouste C, Haagsma EB, Garrigue V, Pischke S, Chauvet C, et al. Factors associated with chronic hepatitis in patients with hepatitis E virus infection who have received solid organ transplants. Gastroenterology. 2011;140(5):1481–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Dalton HR, Kamar N, van Eijk JJ, McLean BN, Cintas P, Bendall RP, et al. Hepatitis E virus and neurological injury. Nat Rev Neurol. 2016;12(2):77–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Abid S, Khan AH. Severe hemolysis and renal failure in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient patients with hepatitis E. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(6):1544–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Au WY, Ngai CW, Chan WM, Leung RY, Chan SC. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia due to hepatitis E virus infection in patient with G6PD deficiency. Ann Hematol. 2011;90(10):1237–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Bhagat S, Wadhawan M, Sud R, Arora A. Hepatitis viruses causing pancreatitis and hepatitis: a case series and review of literature. Pancreas. 2008;36(4):424–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Haffar S, Bazerbachi F, Lake JR. HEV-associated cryoglobulinaemia and extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(3):268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Mishra A, Saigal S, Gupta R, Sarin SK. Acute pancreatitis associated with viral hepatitis: a report of six cases with review of literature. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94(8):2292–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Cheung MC, Maguire J, Carey I, Wendon J, Agarwal K. Review of the neurological manifestations of hepatitis E infection. Ann Hepatol. 2012;11(5):618–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Scharn N, Ganzenmueller T, Wenzel JJ, Dengler R, Heim A, Wegner F. Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with autochthonous infection by hepatitis E virus subgenotype 3c. Infection. 2014;42(1):171–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Bruffaerts R, Yuki N, Damme PV, Moortele MV, Wautier M, Lagrou K, et al. Acute ataxic neuropathy associated with hepatitis E virus infection. Muscle Nerve. 2015;52(3):464–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Wu X, Liu K, Zhang HL. Guillain-Barre syndrome and encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with acute severe hepatitis E infection. Neurol Sci. 2015;36(1):165–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Cronin S, McNicholas R, Kavanagh E, Reid V, O’Rourke K. Anti-glycolipid GM2-positive Guillain-Barre syndrome due to hepatitis E infection. Ir J Med Sci. 2011;180(1):255–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Khudyakov Y, Kamili S. Serological diagnostics of hepatitis E virus infection. Virus Res. 2011;161(1):84–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Zhou H, Jiang CW, Li LP, Zhao CY, Wang YC, Xu YW, et al. [Comparison of the reliability of two ELISA kits for detecting IgM antibody against hepatitis E virus]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;42(9):667–71.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Scobie L, Dalton HR. Hepatitis E: source and route of infection, clinical manifestations and new developments. J Viral Hepat. 2013;20(1):1–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Lin XL, Ren H, Liang XH. Detection of anti-virus antibody in sera from patients with hepatitis E after ten-years-infection. Endem Dis Bull. 2002;17(3):14–7.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wen GP, Tang ZM, Yang F, Zhang K, Ji WF, Cai W, et al. A valuable antigen detection method for diagnosis of acute hepatitis E. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53(3):782–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Chen HY, Lu Y, Howard T, Anderson D, Fong PY, Hu WP, et al. Comparison of a new immunochromatographic test to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to hepatitis E virus in human sera. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12(5):593–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Brochot E, Choukroun G, Duverlie G. Ribavirin for chronic hepatitis E virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(25):2446–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Pas SD, Streefkerk RH, Pronk M, de Man RA, Beersma MF, Osterhaus AD, et al. Diagnostic performance of selected commercial HEV IgM and IgG ELISAs for immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. J Clin Virol. 2013;58(4):629–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Zhao ZY, Ruan B, Shao H, Chen ZJ, Liu SL. Detection of hepatitis E virus RNA in sera of patients with hepatitis E by polymerase chain reaction. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2007;6(1):38–42.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Pischke S, Wedemeyer H. Chronic hepatitis E in liver transplant recipients: a significant clinical problem? Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2010;56(2):121–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Kamar N, Rostaing L, Abravanel F, Garrouste C, Lhomme S, Esposito L, et al. Ribavirin therapy inhibits viral replication on patients with chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2010;139(5):1612–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Zhang LQ, Zhao FR, Liu ZG, Kong WL, Wang H, Ouyang Y, et al. Simple and rapid detection of swine hepatitis E virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Arch Virol. 2012;157(12):2383–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Goyal R, Kumar A, Panda SK, Paul SB, Acharya SK. Ribavirin therapy for hepatitis E virus-induced acute on chronic liver failure: a preliminary report. Antivir Ther. 2012;17(6):1091–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Wang Y, Zhou X, Debing Y, Chen K, Van Der Laan LJ, Neyts J, et al. Calcineurin inhibitors stimulate and mycophenolic acid inhibits replication of hepatitis E virus. Gastroenterology. 2014;146(7):1775–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Dao Thi VL, Debing Y, Wu X, Rice CM, Neyts J, Moradpour D, et al. Sofosbuvir inhibits hepatitis E virus replication in vitro and results in an additive effect when combined with ribavirin. Gastroenterology. 2016;150(1):82–5.e4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Khuroo MS. Sanitation and sewage disposal in India. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/2694115842014.
  193. 193.
    Khuroo MS. Viral hepatitis in international travellers: risks and prevention. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2003;21(2):143–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Kamar N, Legrand-Abravanel F, Izopet J, Rostaing L. Hepatitis E virus: what transplant physicians should know. Am J Transplant. 2012;12(9):2281–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Zhu FC, Zhang J, Zhang XF, Zhou C, Wang ZZ, Huang SJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine in healthy adults: a large-scale, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9744):895–902.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Zhang J, Shih JW, Xia NS. Long-term efficacy of a hepatitis E vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(23):2265–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Azman AS, Luquero FJ, Ciglenecki I. Long-term efficacy of a hepatitis E vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(23):2265.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Hepatitis E vaccine: why wait? Lancet. 2010;376(9744):845.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Sultan Khuroo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mehnaaz S. Khuroo
    • 4
  • Naira S. Khuroo
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of MedicineSher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical SciencesSrinagarIndia
  2. 2.King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CentreRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Digestive Diseases Centre, Dr. Khuroo’s Medical ClinicSrinagarIndia
  4. 4.Department of PathologyGovt. Medical College SrinagarSrinagarIndia
  5. 5.Dr. Khuroo’s Medical ClinicSrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations