Advertisement

Design of an Architecture for Accessible Web Maps for Visually Impaired Users

  • Tania Calle-JimenezEmail author
  • Adrián Eguez-Sarzosa
  • Sergio Luján-Mora
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 781)

Abstract

This study presents the design of a conceptual software architecture for the development of accessible web maps for visually impaired users. The conceptual software architecture proposed has three components: the database component is responsible for storing the web maps, the accessible web server component is responsible for converting a web map into an accessible web map, and the user side component is responsible for presenting the accessible web map to the user. A web application has been developed that shows the feasibility of implementing the proposed architecture. This application displays accessible web maps that provide additional information for visually impaired users. In addition, the application offers some alternatives for better interpretation of each map element. Visually impaired users receive feedback from the map displayed on the interface using a screen reader. The application has accessibility features based on WCAG 2.0 that facilitate the interaction of the visually impaired users.

Keywords

Architecture accessible Web accessibility Maps Visually impaired users WCAG 2.0 

References

  1. 1.
    Bosch, J.: Design and Use of Software Architectures: Adopting and Evolving a Product-Line Approach. Pearson Education, London (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hofmeister, C., Nord, R., Soni, D.: Applied Software Architecture. Addison-Wesley Professional, Boston (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ISO: International Organization for Standardization’s ISO 9241-171 Ergonomics of human-system interaction – Guidance on software accessibility (2012). https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:9241:-171:ed-1:v1:en
  4. 4.
    World Wide Web Consortium: Accessibility. W3C Recommendation (2005). https://www.w3.org/standards/webdesign/accessibility
  5. 5.
    World Wide Web Consortium: Web Accessibility Initiative (2005). https://www.w3.org/WAI/gettingstarted/
  6. 6.
    World Wide Web Consortium: Web content accessibility guidelines WCAG 2.0. W3C Recommendation (2008). https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/
  7. 7.
    World Wide Web Consortium: Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 (Second Edition) (2003). https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/
  8. 8.
    World Wide Web Consortium: Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAIARIA) 1.0. W3C Recommendation (2014). https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria/
  9. 9.
    Götzelmann, T., Eichler, L.: Blindweb maps-an interactive web service for the selection and generation of personalized audio-tactile maps. In: 16th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, pp. 139–145 (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brulé, E., Bailly, G., Brock, A., Valentin, F., Denis, G., Jouffrais, C.: MapSense: multi-sensory interactive maps for children living with visual impairments. In: 34th Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pp. 445–457 (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cervenka, P., Brinda, K., Hanousková, M., Hofman, P., Seifert, R.: Blind friendly maps. In: 16th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, pp. 131–138 (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Calle-Jimenez, T., Luján-Mora, S.: Accessible map visualization prototype. In: 13th Web for All Conference, pp. 15–16 (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    World Wide Web Consortium: User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) (2015). https://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/uaag
  14. 14.
    World Health Organization: Guidelines for drinking-water quality, vol. 1 (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    World Health Organization: World Report on Disability (2013). http://www.who.int/workforcealliance/members_partners/member_list/iapb/en/
  16. 16.
    Calle-Jimenez, T., Luján-Mora, S.: Accessible online indoor maps for blind and visually impaired users. In: 18th International Conference on Computers and Accessibility (SIGACCESS) (2016)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Calle Jiménez, T.: Aportaciones técnicas y pedagógicas a la creación de mapas en línea accesibles (2017). https://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/71469/1/tesis_tania_elizabeth_calle_jimenez.pdf
  18. 18.
    Brisaboa, N.R., Luaces, M.R., Paramá, J.R., Trillo, D., Viqueira, J.R.: Improving accessibility of web-based GIS applications. In: 6th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications, pp. 490–494 (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang, C., Zhao, T., Li, W.: Geospatial data interoperability, geography markup language (GML), scalable vector graphics (SVG), and geospatial web services. In: Geospatial Semantic Web, pp. 1–33 (2015)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bose, R., Jurgensen, H.: Online graphics for the blind: intermediate format generation for graphic categories. In: 16th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, pp. 220–223 (2016)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nielsen, J., Clemmensen, T., Yssing, C.: Getting access to what goes on in people’s heads?: reflections on the think-aloud technique. In: Second Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tania Calle-Jimenez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Adrián Eguez-Sarzosa
    • 1
  • Sergio Luján-Mora
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Informatics and Computer ScienceEscuela Politécnica NacionalQuitoEcuador
  2. 2.Department of Software and Computing SystemsUniversity of AlicanteAlicanteSpain

Personalised recommendations