An Automatized Method Based on LaTeX for the Realization of Accessible PDF Documents Containing Formulae

  • Tiziana Armano
  • Anna Capietto
  • Sandro CoriascoEmail author
  • Nadir Murru
  • Alice Ruighi
  • Eugenia Taranto
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10896)


Assistive technologies for visually impaired people (screen readers and braille displays) perform satisfactorily with regard to digital documents containing alphabet characters, but they still have a long way to go as far as formulae and graphs are concerned. In general, the most spread digital documents are in PDF format. However, in the case of mathematical contents, they are not accessible at all, since formulae are usually unreadable by screen readers. Currently, a standard and fast method for inserting accessible formulae into a PDF document is still lacking despite it is a very important issue for spreading accessible digital scientific documents. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically generating a PDF document with mathematical contents accessible by assistive technologies for visually impaired people. Specifically, we have developed a LaTeX package that produces a final PDF document where the formulae are totally accessible by screen readers and braille displays.


Accessibility of formulae Assistive technology LaTeX PDF document Visually impaired people 



The authors wish to thank the bank foundation ‘Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Torino’, LeoClub (Biella, Italy), and the several volunteers with visual impairment who provided their fundamental contribution.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiziana Armano
    • 1
  • Anna Capietto
    • 1
  • Sandro Coriasco
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nadir Murru
    • 1
  • Alice Ruighi
    • 1
  • Eugenia Taranto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsUniversity of TurinTorinoItaly

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