Advertisement

Rock Slope Instability in the Proglacial Zone: State of the Art

  • Samuel T. McColl
  • Daniel Draebing
Chapter
Part of the Geography of the Physical Environment book series (GEOPHY)

Abstract

Rock slope failures are characteristic of mountainous environments. These mass movements produce sediment, alter catchment behaviour and contribute to the dynamics and hazards of high alpine and proglacial areas. This chapter highlights the state of knowledge in the context of proglacial environments and reviews methods of investigating rock slope failure activity and causes. An alignment of extreme conditions and dynamic processes renders proglacial environments exceptionally prone to instability. Glacier retreat and climate change, following the Last Glacial Maximum and more recent stadials, has been a major catalyst for past and ongoing mass movements in alpine areas, and many slopes continue to respond to these legacy perturbations. Rock slope failure activity is preconditioned by rock mass properties and topography, and failures in alpine areas are typically prepared or triggered by: (i) fracture growth and seismicity arising from the unloading of glacial loads over millennial timescales, and (ii) rock fracture growth and loss of strength as a result of hydrological and thermal effects that fluctuate over daily to seasonal timescales, but are superimposed upon long-term trends related to climate change. These insights stem from a growing application of geomorphological, geotechnical, geochemical, geodetic and geophysical techniques that enable the assessment of stability factors and the activity of rock slope failures (both past and contemporary). The rich datasets are being used to inform new understanding of past and ongoing proglacial rock slope instabilities; this understanding will ultimately help to predict process dynamics, environmental change and to mitigate hazards resulting from rock slope failures.

Keywords

Rock slope failure Rockfall Deep-seated rock slope deformation Preconditioning factors Preparatory factors Triggers 

References

  1. Abellán A, Oppikofer T, Jaboyedoff M et al (2014) Terrestrial laser scanning of rock slope instabilities: state of science. Earth Surf Process Land 39:80–97.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akçar N, Deline P, Ivy-Ochs S et al (2012) The AD 1717 rock avalanche deposits in the upper Ferret Valley (Italy): a dating approach with cosmogenic 10Be. J Quat Sci 27:383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen S, Huggel C (2013) Extremely warm temperatures as a potential cause of recent high mountain rockfall. Glob Planet Change 107:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amitrano D, Gruber S, Girard L (2012) Evidence of frost-cracking inferred from acoustic emissions in a high-alpine rock-wall. Earth Planet Sci Lett 341–344:86–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2012.06.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. André M-F (1997) Holocene Rockwall Retreat in Svalbard: a triple-rate evolution. Earth Surf Process Land 22:423–440.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(199705)22:5%3C423:AID-ESP706%3E3.0.CO;2-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arsenault AM, Meigs AJ (2005) Contribution of deep-seated bedrock landslides to erosion of a glaciated basin in southern Alaska. Earth Surf Process Land 30:1111–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ballantyne C (2003) Paraglacial landform succession and sediment storage in deglaciated mountain valleys: theory and approaches to calibration (with 6 figures). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie Supplement 1–18Google Scholar
  8. Ballantyne CK (2002) Paraglacial geomorphology. Quat Sci Rev 21:1935–2017.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-3791(02)00005-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ballantyne CK, Sandeman GF, Stone JO, Wilson P (2014) Rock-slope failure following Late Pleistocene deglaciation on tectonically stable mountainous terrain. Quat Sci Rev 86:144–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.12.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ballantyne CK, Stone JO (2013) Timing and periodicity of paraglacial rock-slope failures in the Scottish highlands. Geomorphology 186:150–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.12.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barton N, Choubey V (1977) The shear strength of rock joints in theory and practice. Rock Mechanics Felsmechanik Mécanique des Roches 10:1–54.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01261801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bieniawski ZT (1989) Engineering rock mass classifications: a complete manual for engineers and geologists in mining, civil, and petroleum engineering. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  13. Blikra LH, Christiansen HH (2014) A field-based model of permafrost-controlled rockslide deformation in northern Norway. Geomorphology 208:34–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.11.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borgatti L, Soldati M (2010) Landslides as a geomorphological proxy for climate change: a record from the Dolomites (Northern Italy). Geomorphology 120:56–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brideau M-A, Sturzenegger M, Stead D et al (2012) Stability analysis of the 2007 Chehalis lake landslide based on long-range terrestrial photogrammetry and airborne LiDAR data. Landslides 9:75–91.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-011-0286-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cave JAS, Ballantyne CK (2016) Catastrophic Rock-Slope failures in NW Scotland: quantitative analysis and implications. Scott Geogr J 132:185–209.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14702541.2016.1156148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clayton A, Stead D, Kinakin D, Wolter A (2017) Engineering geomorphological interpretation of the Mitchell Creek Landslide, British Columbia, Canada. Landslides.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-017-0811-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Collins BD, Stock GM (2016) Rockfall triggering by cyclic thermal stressing of exfoliation fractures. Nat Geosci 9:395–400.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cossart E, Braucher R, Fort M, Bourlés DL, Carcaillet J (2008) Slope instability in relation to glacial debuttressing in alpine areas (Upper Durance catchment, southeastern France): evidence from field data and 10Be cosmic ray exposure ages. Geomorphology 95:3–26 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coquin J, Mercier D, Bourgeois O et al (2015) Gravitational spreading of mountain ridges coeval with Late Weichselian deglaciation: impact on glacial landscapes in Tröllaskagi, Northern Iceland. Quat Sci Rev 107:197–213.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.10.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cossart E, Mercier D, Decaulne A et al (2014) Impacts of post-glacial rebound on landslide spatial distribution at a regional scale in Northern Iceland (Skagafjörður). Earth Surf Process Land 39:336–350.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cox SC, Allen SK, Ferris BG (2008) Vampire rock avalanches, Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, New Zealand. GNS ScienceGoogle Scholar
  23. Cox SC, McSaveney MJ, Rattenbury MS, Hamling IJ (2014) Activity of the landslide Te Horo and Te Koroka fan, Dart River, New Zealand during January 2014Google Scholar
  24. Cox SC, McSaveney MJ, Spencer J et al (2015) Rock avalanche on 14 July 2014 from Hillary Ridge, Aoraki/Mount Cook, New Zealand. Landslides 12:395–402.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-015-0556-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crozier MJ (2005) Management frameworks for landslide hazard and risk: issues and options. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  26. Dahl R (1967) Post-glacial micro-weathering of bedrock surfaces in the Narvik District of Norway. Geografiska Annaler Series A, Phys Geogr 49:155.  https://doi.org/10.2307/520884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Davies MC, Hamza O, Harris C (2001) The effect of rise in mean annual temperature on the stability of rock slopes containing ice-filled discontinuities. Permafrost Periglac Process 12:137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Decaulne A, Cossart E, Mercier D et al (2016) An early Holocene age for the Vatn landslide (Skagafjörḥur, central northern Iceland): insights into the role of postglacial landsliding on slope development. The Holocene 26:1304–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deline P (2009) Interactions between rock avalanches and glaciers in the Mont Blanc massif during the late Holocene. Quat Sci Rev 28:1070–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Deline P, Gruber S, Delaloye R et al (2015) Ice loss and slope stability in high-mountain regions. In: Haeberli W, Whiteman C (eds) Snow and ice-related hazards, risks, and disasters. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 521–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dietrich P, Helmig R, Sauter M, et al (eds) (2005) Flow and transport in fractured porous media. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  32. Dortch JM, Owen LA, Haneberg WC et al (2009) Nature and timing of large landslides in the Himalaya and Transhimalaya of Northern India. Quat Sci Rev 28:1037–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Draebing D (2015) Influences of snow cover on thermal and mechanical processes in steep permafrost rock walls. PhD Thesis, University of BonnGoogle Scholar
  34. Draebing D (2016) Application of refraction seismics in alpine permafrost studies: a review. Earth-Sci Rev 155:136–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.02.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Draebing D, Haberkorn A, Krautblatter M et al (2017a) Thermal and mechanical responses resulting from spatial and temporal snow cover variability in permafrost rock slopes, Steintaelli, Swiss Alps. Permafrost Periglac Process 28:140–157.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.1921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Draebing D, Krautblatter M, Hoffmann T (2017b) Thermo-cryogenic controls of fracture kinematics in permafrost rockwalls. Geophys Res Lett 44:3535–3544.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL072050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Draebing D, Krautblatter M, Dikau R (2014) Interaction of thermal and mechanical processes in steep permafrost rock walls: a conceptual approach. Geomorphology 226:226–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dunning SA, Rosser NJ, McColl ST, Reznichenko NV (2015) Rapid sequestration of rock avalanche deposits within glaciers. Nat Commun 6:7964.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Eberhardt E (2012) Landslide monitoring: the role of investigative monitoring to improve understanding and early warning of failure. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Emberson R, Hovius N, Galy A, Marc O (2015) Chemical weathering in active mountain belts controlled by stochastic bedrock landsliding. Nat Geosci 9:42–45.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eppes MC, Magi B, Hallet B et al (2016) Deciphering the role of solar-induced thermal stresses in rock weathering. Geol Soc Am Bull 128:1315–1338.  https://doi.org/10.1130/B31422.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fischer L, Amann F, Moore JR, Huggel C (2010) Assessment of periglacial slope stability for the 1988 Tschierva rock avalanche (Piz Morteratsch, Switzerland). Eng Geol 116:32–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2010.07.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fischer L, Eisenbeiss H, Kääb A et al (2011) Monitoring topographic changes in a periglacial high-mountain face using high-resolution DTMs, Monte Rosa East Face, Italian Alps. Permafrost Periglac Process 22:140–152.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fischer L, Purves RS, Huggel C et al (2012) On the influence of topographic, geological and cryospheric factors on rock avalanches and rockfalls in high-mountain areas. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12:241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Girard L, Gruber S, Weber S, Beutel J (2013) Environmental controls of frost cracking revealed through in situ acoustic emission measurements in steep bedrock. Geophys Res Lett 40:1748–1753.  https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gischig V, Loew S, Kos A et al (2009) Identification of active release planes using ground-based differential InSAR at the Randa rock slope instability, Switzerland. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9:2027–2038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gischig V, Amann F, Moore JR et al (2011a) Composite rock slope kinematics at the current Randa instability, Switzerland, based on remote sensing and numerical modeling. Eng Geol 118:37–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2010.11.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gischig VS, Moore JR, Evans KF et al (2011b) Thermomechanical forcing of deep rock slope deformation: 1. Conceptual study of a simplified slope. J Geophys Res  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jf002006
  49. Gischig VS, Moore JR, Evans KF et al (2011c) Thermomechanical forcing of deep rock slope deformation: 2. The Randa rock slope instabilityGoogle Scholar
  50. Glade T, Crozier MJ (2005) The nature of landslide hazard impact. In: Glade T, Anderson MG, Crozier MJ (eds) Landslide hazard and risk. Wiley, London, pp 43–74Google Scholar
  51. Grämiger LM, Moore JR, Gischig VS et al (2017) Beyond debuttressing: Mechanics of paraglacial rock slope damage during repeat glacial cycles. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 122:1004–1036.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JF003967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Grove JM (1972) The incidence of landslides, avalanches, and floods in western Norway during the Little Ice Age. Arctic Alpine Res 131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gruber S, Haeberli W (2007) Permafrost in steep bedrock slopes and its temperature-related destabilization following climate change. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JF000547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gruber S, Hoelzle M, Haeberli W (2004) Permafrost thaw and destabilization of Alpine rock walls in the hot summer of 2003. Geophys Res Lett 31:n/a-n/a.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004gl020051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gunzburger Y, Merrien-Soukatchoff V (2011) Near-surface temperatures and heat balance of bare outcrops exposed to solar radiation. Earth Surf Process Land 36:1577–1589.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.2167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Haberkorn A, Hoelzle M, Phillips M, Kenner R (2015) Snow as a driving factor of rock surface temperatures in steep rough rock walls. Cold Reg Sci Technol 118:64–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2015.06.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hall K, Thorn CE (2014) Thermal fatigue and thermal shock in bedrock: an attempt to unravel the geomorphic processes and products. Geomorphology 206:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.09.022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hallet B, Walder JS, Stubbs CW (1991) Weathering by segregation ice growth in microcracks at sustained subzero temperatures: verification from an experimental study using acoustic emissions. Permafrost Periglac Process 2:283–300.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.3430020404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hancox GT, Langridge RM, Perrin ND et al (2013) Recent mapping and radiocarbon dating of three giant landslides in Northern Fiordland, New Zealand. GNS ScienceGoogle Scholar
  60. Hancox GT, McSaveney MJ, Manville VR, Davies TR (2005) The October 1999 Mt Adams rock avalanche and subsequent landslide dam-break flood and effects in Poerua River, Westland, New Zealand. NZ J Geol Geophys 48:683–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hancox GT, Perrin ND (2009) Green Lake Landslide and other giant and very large postglacial landslides in Fiordland, New Zealand. Quat Sci Rev 28:1020–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hancox GT, Thomson R (2013) The January 2013 Mt Haast Rock Avalanche and Ball Ridge Rock Fall in Aoraki/Mt Cook National Park, New Zealand. GNS ScienceGoogle Scholar
  63. Hasler A, Gruber S, Beutel J (2012) Kinematics of steep bedrock permafrost. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 117:n/a-n/a.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jf001981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hasler A, Gruber S, Font M, Dubois A (2011a) Advective heat transport in Frozen Rock Clefts: conceptual model, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. Permafrost Periglac Process 22:378–389.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hasler A, Gruber S, Haeberli W (2011b) Temperature variability and offset in steep alpine rock and ice faces. The Cryosphere 5:977–988.  https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-5-977-2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Heckmann T, Bimböse M, Krautblatter M et al (2012) From geotechnical analysis to quantification and modelling using LiDAR data: a study on rockfall in the Reintal catchment, Bavarian Alps, Germany. Earth Surf Process Land 37:119–133.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.2250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Heckmann T, Haas F, Wichmann V, Morche D (2008) Sediment budget and morphodynamics of an alpine talus cone on different timescales. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementary Issues 52:103–121.  https://doi.org/10.1127/0372-8854/2008/0052S1-0103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Heincke B, Green A, Van Der Kruk J, Willenberg H (2006) Semblance-based topographic migration (SBTM): a method for identifying fracture zones in 3D georadar data. Near Surf Geophys 4:79–88Google Scholar
  69. Heincke B, Günther T, Dalsegg E et al (2010) Combined three-dimensional electric and seismic tomography study on the Åknes rockslide in Western Norway. J Appl Geophys 70:292–306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2009.12.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hermanns RL, Fauqué L, Wilson CGJ (2015) 36Cl terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating suggests late pleistocene to early holocene mass movements on the south face of Aconcagua mountain and in the Las Cuevas–Horcones valleys, Central Andes, Argentina, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 399(1):345–368.  https://doi.org/10.1144/sp399.19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hermanns R, Redfield T, Bunkholt H et al (2012) Cosmogenic nuclide dating of slow moving rockslides in Norway in order to assess long-term slide velocities. Landslides and engineered slopes: protecting society through improved understanding. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp 849–854Google Scholar
  72. Hetzel R, Hampel A (2005) Slip rate variations on normal faults during glacial-interglacial changes in surface loads. Nature 435:81–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hinchliffe S, Ballantyne CK (1999) Talus accumulation and Rockwall retreat, Trotternish, isle of Skye, Scotland. Scott Geogr J 115:53–70.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00369229918737057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hinchliffe S, Ballantyne CK (2009) Talus structure and evolution on sandstone mountains in NW Scotland. The Holocene 19:477–486.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683608101396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hipp T, Etzelmüller B, Westermann S (2014) Permafrost in Alpine Rock Faces from Jotunheimen and Hurrungane, Southern Norway. Permafrost Periglac Process 25:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.1799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hoek E, Brown ET (1997) Practical estimates of rock mass strength. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 34:1165–1186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1365-1609(97)80069-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Huggel C, Zgraggen-Oswald S, Haeberli W et al (2005) The 2002 rock/ice avalanche at Kolka/Karmadon, Russian Caucasus: assessment of extraordinary avalanche formation and mobility, and application of QuickBird satellite imagery. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 5:173–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ivy-Ochs S, Poschinger A, Synal H-A, Maisch M (2009) Surface exposure dating of the Flims landslide, Graubünden, Switzerland. Geomorphology 103:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. James MR, Robson S (2012) Straightforward reconstruction of 3D surfaces and topography with a camera: accuracy and geoscience application. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 117:n/a-n/a.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jf002289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jia H, Xiang W, Krautblatter M (2015) Quantifying rock fatigue and decreasing compressive and tensile strength after repeated Freeze-Thaw cycles: rock fatigue model. Permafrost Periglac Process 26:368–377.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.1857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Johnson BG, Smith JA, Diemer JA (2017) A chronology of post-glacial landslides suggests that slight increases in precipitation could trigger a disproportionate geomorphic response: precipitation increase may be disproportationate to landslide response. Earth Surf Process Land.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kargel JS, Leonard GJ, Shugar DH et al (2016) Geomorphic and geologic controls of geohazards induced by Nepals 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. Science 351:aac8353-aac8353.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac8353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Korup O (2005) Large landslides and their effect on sediment flux in South Westland, New Zealand. Earth Surf Process Land 30:305–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Korup O (2006) Rock-slope failure and the river long profile. Geology 34:45.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G21959.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Korup O, Clague JJ, Hermanns RL et al (2007) Giant landslides, topography, and erosion. Earth Planet Sci Lett 261:578–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Korup O, McSaveney MJ, Davies TR (2004) Sediment generation and delivery from large historic landslides in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Geomorphology 61:189–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kos A, Amann F, Strozzi T et al (2016) Contemporary glacier retreat triggers a rapid landslide response, Great Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland. Geophys Res Lett 43:12466–12474.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016gl071708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Krautblatter M, Draebing D (2014) Pseudo 3-D P wave refraction seismic monitoring of permafrost in steep unstable bedrock. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 119:287–299.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2012JF002638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Krautblatter M, Funk D, Günzel FK (2013) Why permafrost rocks become unstable: a rock-ice-mechanical model in time and space. Earth Surf Process Land 38:876–887.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Krautblatter M, Hauck C (2007) Electrical resistivity tomography monitoring of permafrost in solid rock walls. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JF000546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Krautblatter M, Leith K (2015) Glacier- and permafrost-related slope instabilities. In: Huggel C, Carey M, Clague JJ, Kaab A (eds) The high-mountain cryosphere. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 147–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Krautblatter M, Moser M (2009) A nonlinear model coupling rockfall and rainfall intensity based on a four year measurement in a high Alpine rock wall (Reintal, German Alps). Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9:1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Krautblatter M, Moser M, Schrott L et al (2012) Significance of rockfall magnitude and carbonate dissolution for rock slope erosion and geomorphic work on Alpine limestone cliffs (Reintal, German Alps). Geomorphology 167:21–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Krautblatter M, Verleysdonk S, Flores-Orozco A, Kemna A (2010) Temperature-calibrated imaging of seasonal changes in permafrost rock walls by quantitative electrical resistivity tomography (Zugspitze, German/Austrian Alps). J Geophys Res Earth Surf 115:n/a-n/a.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008jf001209
  95. Larsen IJ, Montgomery DR, Korup O (2010) Landslide erosion controlled by hillslope material. Nat Geosci 3:247–251.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Leith K, Moore JR, Amann F, Loew S (2014) In situ stress control on microcrack generation and macroscopic extensional fracture in exhuming bedrock. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 119:594–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Leith KJ (2012) Stress development and geomechanical controls on the geomorphic evolution of alpine valleysGoogle Scholar
  98. Luethi R, Gruber S, Ravanel L (2015) Modelling transient ground surface temperatures of past rockfall events: towards a better understanding of failure mechanisms in changing periglacial environments. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Phys Geogr 97:753–767.  https://doi.org/10.1111/geoa.12114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Matsuoka N, Murton J (2008) Frost weathering: recent advances and future directions. Permafrost Periglac Process 19:195–210.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Matsuoka N, Sakai H (1999) Rockfall activity from an alpine cliff during thawing periods. Geomorphology 28:309–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. McCarroll D, Shakesby RA, Matthews JA (2001) Enhanced rockfall activity during the Little Ice Age: further lichenometric evidence from a Norwegian talus. Permafrost Periglac Process 12:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. McColl S, Davies T (2011) Evidence for a rock-avalanche origin for ‘The Hillocks’“moraine”, Otago, New Zealand. Geomorphology 127:216–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. McColl S, Davies T, McSaveney M (2010) Glacier retreat and rock-slope stability: debunking debuttressing. In: Geologically active: delegate papers 11th congress of the international association for engineering geology and the environment, Auckland, Aotearoa, pp 5–10Google Scholar
  104. McColl ST (2012a) Paraglacial rock-slope stability. Geomorphology 153:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. McColl ST (2012b) Paraglacial rockslope stability. PhD Thesis. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  106. McColl ST (2014) Landslide causes and triggers. In: Shroder JF, Davies TRH (eds) Landslide hazards, risks, and disasters. Academic Press, pp 17–42Google Scholar
  107. McColl ST, Davies TR (2013) Large ice-contact slope movements: glacial buttressing, deformation and erosion. Earth Surf Process Land 38:1102–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. McColl ST, Davies TR, McSaveney MJ (2012) The effect of glaciation on the intensity of seismic ground motion. Earth Surf Process Land 37:1290–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. McSaveney M (2002) Recent rockfalls and rock avalanches in Mount Cook National Park, New Zealand. Rev Eng Geol 15:35–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McSaveney M, Massey C (2013) Did radiative cooling trigger New Zealand’s 2007 Young River Landslide? In: Margottini C, Canuti P, Sassa K (eds) Landslide science and practice. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Micheletti N, Lambiel C, Lane SN (2015) Investigating decadal-scale geomorphic dynamics in an alpine mountain setting. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 120:2155–2175.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JF003656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Moore JR, Gischig V, Katterbach M, Loew S (2011) Air circulation in deep fractures and the temperature field of an alpine rock slope. Earth Surf Process Land 36:1985–1996.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Moore JR, Sanders JW, Dietrich WE, Glaser SD (2009) Influence of rock mass strength on the erosion rate of alpine cliffs. Earth Surf Process Land 34:1339–1352.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Murphy W (2006) The role of topographic amplification on the initiation of rock slopes failures during earthquakes. In: Evans SG, Mugnozza GS, Strom A, Hermanns RL (eds) Landslides from Massive Rock Slope Failure. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 139–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Murton JB, Peterson R, Ozouf J-C (2006) Bedrock fracture by ice segregation in cold regions. Science 314:1127–1129.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1132127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Myhra KS, Westermann S, Etzelmüller B (2017) Modelled distribution and temporal evolution of permafrost in steep rock walls along a latitudinal transect in Norway by CryoGrid 2D: permafrost in steep rock walls. Permafrost Periglac Process 28:172–182.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.1884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Nichols T (1980) Rebound, its nature and effect on engineering works. Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 13:133–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Nishii R, Matsuoka N (2012) Kinematics of an alpine retrogressive rockslide in the Japanese Alps. Earth Surf Process Land 37:1641–1650.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Noetzli J, Gruber S, Kohl T et al (2007) Three-dimensional distribution and evolution of permafrost temperatures in idealized high-mountain topography. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JF000545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Oppikofer T, Jaboyedoff M, Keusen H-R (2008) Collapse at the eastern Eiger flank in the Swiss Alps. Nat Geosci 1:531–535.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ostermann M, Prager C (2014) Major Holocene rock slope failures in the Upper Inn-and Ötz valley region (Tyrol, Austria). In: Kerschner H, Krainer K, Spötl C (eds) From the Foreland to the Central Alps. DEUQUA Excursions Geozon, Berlin, pp 116–126Google Scholar
  122. Ostermann M, Sanders D (2017) The Benner pass rock avalanche cluster suggests a close relation between long-term slope deformation (DSGSDs and translational rock slides) and catastrophic failure. Geomorphology 289:44–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Otto J, Sass O (2006) Comparing geophysical methods for talus slope investigations in the Turtmann valley (Swiss Alps). Geomorphology 76:257–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Otto J-C, Dikau R (2004) Geomorphologic system analysis of a high mountain valley in the Swiss Alps. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, NF 323–341Google Scholar
  125. Otto J-C, Schrott L, Jaboyedoff M, Dikau R (2009) Quantifying sediment storage in a high alpine valley (Turtmanntal, Switzerland). Earth Surf Process Land 34:1726–1742.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pánek T, Engel Z, Mentlík P et al (2016) Cosmogenic age constraints on post-LGM catastrophic rock slope failures in the Tatra Mountains (Western Carpathians). CATENA 138:52–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2015.11.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pánek T, Mentlík P, Engel Z et al (2017) Late Quaternary sackungen in the highest mountains of the Carpathians. Quat Sci Rev 159:47–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.01.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Phillips M, Haberkorn A, Draebing D et al (2016) Seasonally intermittent water flow through deep fractures in an Alpine Rock Ridge: Gemsstock, Central Swiss Alps. Cold Reg Sci Technol 125:117–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2016.02.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Phillips M, Wolter A, Lüthi R et al (2017) Rock slope failure in a recently deglaciated permafrost rock wall at Piz Kesch (Eastern Swiss Alps), February 2014. Earth Surf Process Land 42:426–438.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Porter SC, Orombelli G (1981) Alpine Rockfall Hazards: recognition and dating of rockfall deposits in the western Italian Alps lead to an understanding of the potential hazards of giant rockfalls in mountainous regions. Am Sci 69:67–75Google Scholar
  131. Prager C, Zangerl C, Patzelt G, Brandner R (2008) Age distribution of fossil landslides in the Tyrol (Austria) and its surrounding areas. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 8:377–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Preisig G, Eberhardt E, Smithyman M et al (2016) Hydromechanical rock mass fatigue in deep-seated landslides accompanying seasonal variations in pore pressures. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49:2333–2351.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-016-0912-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Prick A (2003) La désagrégation des roches et les chutes de pierres en milieu de montagne polaire (Longyearbyen, Spitsberg)(Rock weathering and rock falls in polar mountain environment). Bulletin de l’Association de géographes français 80:73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Purdie H, Gomez C, Espiner S (2015) Glacier recession and the changing rockfall hazard: implications for glacier tourism. NZ Geogr 71:189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rapp A (1960) Recent development of mountain slopes in Kärkevagge and surroundings, Northern Scandinavia. Geogr Ann 42:65.  https://doi.org/10.2307/520126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ravanel L, Allignol F, Deline P et al (2010) Rock falls in the Mont Blanc Massif in 2007 and 2008. Landslides 7:493–501.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-010-0206-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Ravanel L, Deline P (2011) Climate influence on rockfalls in high-Alpine steep rockwalls: the north side of the Aiguilles de Chamonix (Mont Blanc massif) since the end of the ‘Little Ice Age’. The Holocene 21:357–365.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683610374887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Reznichenko NV, Davies TR, Alexander DJ (2011) Effects of rock avalanches on glacier behaviour and moraine formation. Geomorphology 132:327–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Reznichenko NV, Davies TR, Shulmeister J, Larsen SH (2012) A new technique for identifying rock avalanche–sourced sediment in moraines and some paleoclimatic implications. Geology 40:319–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Reznichenko NV, Davies TRH, Winkler S (2016) Revised palaeoclimatic significance of Mueller Glacier moraines, Southern Alps, New Zealand: revised interpretation of Mueller Glacier Moraines, Southern Alps. Earth Surf Process Land 41:196–207.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rode M, Schnepfleitner H, Sass O (2016) Simulation of moisture content in alpine rockwalls during freeze-thaw events: simulation of moisture content in Alpine Rock Walls. Earth Surf Process Land 41:1937–1950.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sanchez G, Rolland Y, Corsini M et al (2010) Relationships between tectonics, slope instability and climate change: cosmic ray exposure dating of active faults, landslides and glacial surfaces in the SW Alps. Geomorphology 117:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.10.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sass O (2004) Rock moisture fluctuations during freeze-thaw cycles: preliminary results from electrical resistivity measurements. Polar Geogr 28:13–31.  https://doi.org/10.1080/789610157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Sass O (2005a) Rock moisture measurements: techniques, results, and implications for weathering. Earth Surf Process Land 30:359–374.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sass O (2005b) Temporal variability of rockfall in the Bavarian Alps, Germany. Arct Antarct Alp Res 37:564–573.  https://doi.org/10.1657/1523-0430(2005)037[0564:TVORIT]2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Sass O (2006) Determination of the internal structure of alpine talus deposits using different geophysical methods (Lechtaler Alps, Austria). Geomorphology 80:45–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.09.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sass O (2007) Bedrock detection and talus thickness assessment in the European Alps using geophysical methods. J Appl Geophys 62:254–269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2006.12.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sass O, Krautblatter M, Morche D (2007) Rapid lake infill following major rockfall (bergsturz) events revealed by ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, Reintal, German Alps. The Holocene 17:965–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Scapozza C, Lambiel C, Baron L et al (2011) Internal structure and permafrost distribution in two alpine periglacial talus slopes, Valais, Swiss Alps. Geomorphology 132:208–221.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.05.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Schneider JF, Gruber FE, Mergili M (2013) Recent cases and geomorphic evidence of landslide-dammed lakes and related hazards in the mountains of Central Asia. In: Landslide science and practice. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Selby M (1980) A rock mass strength classification for geomorphic purposes, with tests from Antarctica and New Zealand. Zeit Geomorph, NF 24:31–51Google Scholar
  152. Siewert MB, Krautblatter M, Christiansen HH, Eckerstorfer M (2012) Arctic rockwall retreat rates estimated using laboratory-calibrated ERT measurements of talus cones in Longyeardalen, Svalbard. Earth Surf Process Land 37:1542–1555.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Sigurdsson O, Williams RS (1991) Rockslides on the Terminus of “Jokulsargilsjokull”, Southern Iceland. Geografiska Annaler Series A, Phys Geogr 73:129.  https://doi.org/10.2307/521018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sims A, Cox SC, Fitzsimons S, Holland P (2015) Seasonal infiltration and groundwater movement in schist bedrock, Southern Alps, New Zealand. J Hydrol 54:33Google Scholar
  155. Stead D, Coggan J, Eberhardt E (2004) Realistic simulation of rock slope failure mechanisms: the need to incorporate principles of fracture mechanics. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:563–568.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2004.03.100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Stewart IS, Sauber J, Rose J (2000) Glacio-seismotectonics: ice sheets, crustal deformation and seismicity. Quat Sci Rev 19:1367–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Stoffel M, Lièvre I, Monbaron M, Perret S (2005) Seasonal timing of rockfall activity on a forested slope at Täschgufer (Swiss Alps)–a dendrochronological approach. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 89–106Google Scholar
  158. Strozzi T, Delaloye R, Kääb A et al (2010) Combined observations of rock mass movements using satellite SAR interferometry, differential GPS, airborne digital photogrammetry, and airborne photography interpretation. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JF001311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Strunden J, Ehlers TA, Brehm D, Nettesheim M (2015) Spatial and temporal variations in rockfall determined from TLS measurements in a deglaciated valley, Switzerland. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 120:1251–1273.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JF003274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sturzenegger M, Stead D (2009) Close-range terrestrial digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning for discontinuity characterization on rock cuts. Eng Geol 106:163–182.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2009.03.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Terzaghi K (1962) Stability of steep slopes on hard unweathered rock. Geotechnique 12:251–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Turnbull JM, Davies TR (2006) A mass movement origin for cirques. Earth Surf Process Land 31:1129–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Van Asch TW, Buma J, Van Beek LP (1999) A view on some hydrological triggering systems in landslides. Geomorphology 30:25–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(99)00042-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Vehling L, Rohn J, Moser M (2016) Quantification of small magnitude rockfall processes at a proglacial high mountain site, Gepatsch glacier (Tyrol, Austria). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementary Issues 60:93–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Viles H, Goudie A, Grab S, Lalley J (2011) The use of the Schmidt Hammer and Equotip for rock hardness assessment in geomorphology and heritage science: a comparative analysis. Earth Surf Process Land 36:320–333.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.2040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Viles HA (2013) Linking weathering and rock slope instability: non-linear perspectives. Earth Surf Process Land 38:62–70.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Whitehouse I (1988) Geomorphology of the central Southern Alps, New Zealand: the interaction of plate collision and atmospheric circulation. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie NF 69:105–116Google Scholar
  168. Wieczorek GF, Jäger S (1996) Triggering mechanisms and depositional rates of postglacial slope-movement processes in the Yosemite Valley, California. Geomorphology 15:17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Willenberg H, Loew S, Eberhardt E et al (2008) Internal structure and deformation of an unstable crystalline rock mass above Randa (Switzerland): Part I—Internal structure from integrated geological and geophysical investigations. Eng Geol 101:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Wirz V, Geertsema M, Gruber S, Purves RS (2016) Temporal variability of diverse mountain permafrost slope movements derived from multi-year daily GPS data, Mattertal, Switzerland. Landslides 13:67–83.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-014-0544-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Wirz V, Schirmer M, Gruber S, Lehning M (2011) Spatio-temporal measurements and analysis of snow depth in a rock face. The Cryosphere 5:893–905.  https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-5-893-2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Zhang T (2005) Influence of the seasonal snow cover on the ground thermal regime: an overview. Rev Geophys.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004RG000157CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geosciences GroupMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  2. 2.Chair of Landslide ResearchTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations