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Critical Care Management of the Adult with the Univentricular Heart

  • Mina HafzalahEmail author
  • John M. Costello
  • Carl L. Backer
  • R. Andrew de Freitas
  • Constantine Mavroudis
Chapter
Part of the Congenital Heart Disease in Adolescents and Adults book series (CHDAA)

Abstract

Survival of children with functionally univentricular hearts has improved due to staged correction, innovative venous-pulmonary artery connections, and structured perioperative care. A rapidly growing number of these patients are reaching adulthood and are being admitted to intensive care units in greater numbers. Although many adults with functionally univentricular hearts will have undergone a Fontan operation, some will present unoperated or with incomplete single ventricle surgical palliation. Acute on chronic heart failure and the end-organ manifestations of this physiologic state are the most common indications for intensive care unit admission. Given the unique cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, and non-cardiac comorbidities present in this patient population, an understanding of the nuances in cardiac critical care evaluation and management is necessary to achieve optimal outcomes. Access to medical and surgical subspecialists with expertise in adult congenital heart disease is often needed. Thus, when feasible, intensive care for this patient population should be provided in a regional adult congenital heart disease center. In this chapter, we summarize the most common indications for intensive care admission in adults with functionally univentricular hearts, as well as the general principles regarding evaluation in the context of critical illness. We also review critical care management strategies that seem most appropriate based upon the unique physiologic characteristics and cardiopulmonary interactions inherent to this patient population.

Keywords

Functionally univentricular heart Single ventricle Adult congenital heart disease Fontan operation Fontan conversion Intensive care Cardiopulmonary interactions Low cardiac output Plastic bronchitis Protein-losing enteropathy Cardiac arrest Mechanical circulatory support 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mina Hafzalah
    • 1
    Email author
  • John M. Costello
    • 2
    • 3
  • Carl L. Backer
    • 4
    • 5
  • R. Andrew de Freitas
    • 2
    • 6
    • 7
  • Constantine Mavroudis
    • 8
    • 9
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Critical Care MedicineChildren’s Hospital of Illinois/UICOMPPeoriaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pediatric CardiologyMedical University of South Carolina Children’s HospitalCharlestonUSA
  4. 4.Department of SurgeryNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  5. 5.Cardiovascular-Thoracic SurgeryAnn & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  6. 6.Adult Congenital Heart Disease ServiceAnn & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  7. 7.Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute, Northwestern Memorial HospitalChicagoUSA
  8. 8.Department of SurgeryJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  9. 9.Johns Hopkins Children’s Heart SurgeryFlorida Hospital for ChildrenOrlandoUSA

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