Deep Convolutional Autoencoders vs PCA in a Highly-Unbalanced Parkinson’s Disease Dataset: A DaTSCAN Study

  • Francisco Jesús Martinez-MurciaEmail author
  • Andres Ortiz
  • Juan Manuel Gorriz
  • Javier Ramirez
  • Diego Castillo-Barnes
  • Diego Salas-Gonzalez
  • Fermin Segovia
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 771)


The automated analysis of medical imaging, especially brain imaging, is a challenging high-dimensional task. Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) tools often require the images to be spatially normalized and then perform feature extraction to be able to avoid the small sample size problem. However, the spatial normalization often introduces artefacts, especially in functional imaging. Furthermore, variance-based decomposition techniques like PCA, which are extensively used in CAD tools, often perform poorly in highly-unbalanced dataset. To overcome these two problems, we propose a deep Convolutional Autoencoder (CAE) architecture that performs image decomposition -or encoding- in images that were not spatially normalized. A CAD system that used CAE for feature extraction and a Support Vector Machine Classifier (SVC) for classification was tested on a strongly imbalanced (5.69/1) Parkinson’s Disease (PD) neuroimaging dataset from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI), achieving more than 93% accuracy in detecting PD with DaTSCAN imaging, and a area under the ROC curve higher than 0.96. This system paves the way for new deep learning decompositions that bypass the common spatial normalization step and are able to extract relevant information in highly-imbalanced datasets.


Autoencoder Convolutional neural networks Deep learning Parkinson’s Disease DaTSCAN 



This work was partly supported by the MINECO/FEDER under the TEC2015-64718-R project and the Consejera de Economía, Innovación, Ciencia y Empleo (Junta de Andalucía, Spain) under the Excellence Project P11-TIC- 7103.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andres Ortiz
    • 2
  • Juan Manuel Gorriz
    • 1
  • Javier Ramirez
    • 1
  • Diego Castillo-Barnes
    • 1
  • Diego Salas-Gonzalez
    • 1
  • Fermin Segovia
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Signal Theory, Networking and CommunicationsUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Communications EngineeringUniversity of MálagaMálagaSpain

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