Teacher Training, Mentoring or Performance Support Systems?

  • Roberto Araya
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 785)


A major challenge in education is how to improve teaching. This means improving teaching so that all students effectively achieve the levels of performance stipulated in the curriculum and that they do so within the specified timeframes. This goal is particularly difficult to achieve in schools with students of low socioeconomic status. However, measuring the quality of instruction is not a straightforward task. This is partly due to a lack of rigorous and regular data on student performance gathered by independent third parties. On the other hand, there are several alternatives for improving teaching: teacher training, teacher mentoring programs and support systems to boost teacher performance. Our study looks at eight years of data on national standardized test scores for every school in a low SES district. We found that the effect size of a Performance Support System is larger than the benchmark effect sizes for teacher training and teacher mentoring programs.


Performance Support Systems Teacher training  Teacher mentoring programs Effect sizes 



Funding from PIA-CONICYT Basal Funds for Centers of Excellence Project FB0003 is gratefully acknowledged, as is the Fondef D15I10017 grant from CONICYT.


  1. 1.
    Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., Keeling, D.: The Widget Effect: Our National Failure to Acknowledge and Act on Differences in Teacher Effectiveness. New Teacher Project, Washington, DC (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kraft, M., Gilmour, A.: Revisiting the Widget Effect: Teacher Evaluation Reforms and the Distribution of Teacher Effectiveness. Educ. Res. 46(5), 234–244 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kane, T.: Connecting to practice. How we can we research to work. Educ. Next 16(2) (2016)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lipsey, M.W., Puzio, K., Yun, C., Hebert, M.A., Steinka-Fry, K., Cole, M.W., Roberts, M., Anthony, K.S., Busick, M.D.: Translating the statistical representation of the effects of education interventions into more readily interpretable forms. (NCSER 2013-3000). National Center for Special Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences (IES), U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC (2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Garet, M.S., Heppen, J.B., Walters, K., Parkinson, J., Smith, T.M., Song, M., Garrett, R., Yang, R., Borman, G.D.: Focusing on mathematical knowledge: the impact of content-intensive teacher professional development (NCEE 2016-4010). National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC (2016)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Garet, M., Wayne, A., Stancavage, F., Taylor, J., Walters, K., Song, M., Brown, S., Hurlburt, S., Zhu, P., Sepanik, S., Doolitle, F., Warner, E.: Middle school mathematics professional development impact study findings after the first year of implementation. US Department of Education (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fryer, R.: The production of human capital in developed countries: evidence from 196 randomized field experiments. In: Handbook of Field Experiments, vol. 2, pp. 95–322, North-Holland, Amsterdam (2017)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gersten, R., Taylor, M.J., Keys, T.D., Rolfhus, E., Newman-Gonchar, R.: Summary of research on the effectiveness of math professional development approaches. (REL 2014-010). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, Washington, DC (2014).
  9. 9.
    Papay, J., West, M., Fullerton, J., Kane, T.: Does an urban teacher residency increase student achievement? Early evidence from Boston. Educ. Eval. Policy Anal. 34(4), 413–434 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reynolds, A., Araya, R.: Building Multimedia Performance Support Systems. McGraw Hill, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Araya, R.: Integrating classes from different schools using intelligent teacher support systems. In: Karwowski, W., Ahram, T. (eds.) Intelligent Human Systems Integration. IHSI 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 722, pp. 294–300. Springer, Cham (2018)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Araya, R., Aguirre, C., Bahamondez, M., Calfucura, P., Jaure, P.: Social Facilitation Due to Online Inter-classrooms Tournaments. LNCS, vol. 9891, pp. 16–29 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Araya, R., Van der Molen, J.: Impact of a blended ICT adoption model on Chilean vulnerable schools correlates with amount of on online practice. In: Proceedings of the Workshops at the 16th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education AIED 2013, Memphis, 9–13 July 2013Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Araya, R., Gormaz, R., Bahamondez, M., Aguirre, C., Calfucura, P., Jaure. P., Laborda, C.: ICT supported learning rises math achievement in low socio economic status schools. LNCS, vol. 9307, pp. 383–388 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Angrist, J., Pischke, J.: Mastering Metrics: The Path from Cause to Effect. Princeton University Press, Princeton (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kane, T., Rockoff, J., Staiger, D.: What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness? Evidence from New York City. Econ. Educ. Rev. 27, 615–631 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schmidt, R., Young, V., Cassidy, L., Wang, H., Laguarda, K.: Impact of the New Teacher Center’s New Teacher Induction Model on Teachers and Students. SRI International, Menlo Park (2017)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Young, V.M., Schmidt, R., Wang, H., Cassidy, L., Laguarda, K.: A comprehensive model of teacher induction: implementation and impact on teachers and students. Evaluation of the New Teacher Center’s i3 Validation grant, final report. Prepared for the New Teacher Center. SRI International, Menlo Park (2017)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bloom, H.S., Hill, C.J., Black, A.B., Lipsey, M.W.: Performance trajectories and performance gaps as achievement effect-size benchmarks for educational interventions. J. Res. Educ. Effectiveness 1(4), 289–328 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Busso, M., Cristia, J., Hincapié, D., Messina, J., Ripani, L.: Learning Better. Public Policy for Skills Development. Inter-American Development Bank (2017)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Investigación Avanzada en EducaciónUniversidad de ChileSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations