Respiratory Review: A, B, C, and P of Kids (Asthma, Bronchiolitis, Croup, and Pneumonia)

  • Cristina M. Zeretzke-BienEmail author


Asthma, bronchiolitis, and croup are the ABC diagnoses of the pediatric patient presenting with a respiratory complaint. This chapter highlights the evidence-based care for these specific entities, with associated helpful clinical decision scores to guide care and resource utilization. It also includes the clinical manifestations of pneumonia with age-based antibiotic therapy.


Airway anatomy Respiratory distress Asthma Bronchospasm Ventilation Dyspnea Retractions Tachypnea Nasal flaring Wheezing Prolonged expiratory phase Oxygen Ipratropium bromide Steroids Epinephrine Magnesium sulfate Noninvasive positive pressure Heliox Albuterol Pediatric Asthma Score Bronchiolitis Congenital heart disease Rhonchi Rales Suctioning High-flow oxygen therapy Bronchiolitis score Laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) Stridor Westley croup score Racemic epinephrine Dexamethasone Hypoxemia Pneumonia antibiotic therapy 

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Emergency MedicineUniversity of Florida, Department of Emergency MedicineGainesvilleUSA

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