Electrolyte Disturbances

  • Tricia B. Swan


This electrolyte disturbances chapter is full of important pearls to the identification and treatment of hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, and hypoglycemia. The tables are a vital tool to help identify the etiology of the patient’s electrolyte abnormality. Treatments are concise and bulleted for quick reference and action.


Hyponatremia Altered mental status Seizures Pseudohyponatremia Cheyne-Stokes respirations Osmolality (serum and urine) Adrenal insufficiency Obstructive uropathy Renal tubular acidosis SIADH Congestive heart failure Renal failure Nephrotic syndrome Water intoxication Hypothyroidism Hypertonic saline Central pontine myelinolysis Hypernatremia Extrarenal loss Diabetes insipidus Acute tubular necrosis Insensible losses Hyperaldosteronism Isotonic saline Hypokalemia Ileus Areflexia Muscle cramps and weakness Arrhythmias Urinary retention Transcellular shift Alkalosis Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis DKA Fanconi syndrome Pyloric stenosis Cystic fibrosis Ureterosigmoidostomy ECG changes Hyperkalemia Rhabdomyolysis Tumor lysis syndrome Malignant hyperthermia Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis Succinylcholine Lupus nephritis Hemolysis Hypocalcemia Tetany Paresthesias Laryngospasm Trousseau sign Chvostek sign DiGeorge syndrome Hypomagnesemia Autoimmune disease Vitamin D deficiency Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) Hypoparathyroidism Exchange transfusion Pancreatitis Chelation therapy Velo-cardio-facial syndrome Williams syndrome Milk-alkali syndrome Thiazide diuretics Malignancies Hypoglycemia Hyperinsulinism Growth hormone deficiency Polycythemia Malnutrition Inborn errors of metabolism 

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Emergency MedicineUniversity of Florida, Department of Emergency MedicineGainesvilleUSA

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