Batch Chemistry and Reactions

  • Oscar S. Verheijen
  • Mathieu HubertEmail author
Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)


In industrial glass production, a batch composed of a mix of raw materials is introduced in the furnace at high temperatures, to be converted into a glass melt, which will then be shaped into the desired article. The batch-to-melt conversion is a critical process, involving a sequence of reactions (dehydration, solid-state reactions, formation of primary melt phases, dissolution of sand grains), the nature and rate of which depend on both thermodynamics and kinetics. Heat transfers to the batch are of major importance, as the rate of batch-to-melt conversion has a direct impact on the energy required for melting the glass, and therefore on the production costs. After the batch-to-melt conversion, the melt will contain a large amount of bubbles and dissolved gases, and a proper fining is required to obtain a product with good quality.

In this chapter, the different reactions taking place during the batch-to-melt conversion and the fining of the melt are described. Specific attention is given to the heat transfer mechanisms, kinetics, and the silica (sand) grain dissolution mechanisms. The consequences of batch-to-melt and fining reactions in an industrial furnace (foaming, refractory corrosion) are also mentioned.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CelSian Glass & Solar B.V.EindhovenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Dept. of Corning Glass TechnologiesCorning Research & Development CorporationPainted PostUSA

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