Reliability Physics and Engineering pp 227-304 | Cite as

# Time-to-Failure Models for Selected Failure Mechanisms in Mechanical Engineering

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## Abstract

The mechanical properties of materials are related to the fundamental bonding strengths of the constituent atoms in the solid and any bonding defects which might form. A molecular model is presented so that primary bond formation mechanisms (*ionic, covalent, and metallic*) can be better understood. How these bonds form and respond to mechanical stress/loading is very important for engineering applications. A discussion of elasticity, plasticity and bond breakage is presented. The theoretical strengths of most molecular bonds in a crystal are seldom realized because of crystalline defects limiting the ultimate strength of the materials. Important crystalline defects such as vacancies, dislocations, and grain boundaries are discussed. These crystalline defects can play critically important roles as time-to-failure models are developed for: creep, fatigue, crack propagation, thermal expansion mismatch, corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking.

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