Pittosporaceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austr. 2: 542 (1814), nom. cons. (“Pittosporeae”).
  • R. C. Carolin
  • V. Bittrich
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 15)


This comprehensive treatment of the flowering plant family Pittosporaceae (9 genera, ca. 250 spp.) provides relevant information on its morphology, anatomy, phytochemistry, ecology, biogeography and phylogeny. It also provides an identification key to and concise descriptions of the accepted genera. Important synonyms are listed and references to revisions and to the literature on the family are provided.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Bacon, C.D., Allan, G.J., Zimmer, E.A., Wagner, W.L. 2011. Genome scans reveal high levels of gene flow in Hawaiian Pittosporum. Taxon 60: 733–741. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bennett, E.M. 1972. New taxa and new combinations in Western Australian Pittosporaceae. Nuytsia 2: 266–269.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, E.M. 1978. New taxa and new combinations in Australian Pittosporaceae. Nuytsia 2: 184–199.Google Scholar
  4. Carlquist, S. 1981. Wood anatomy of Pittosporaceae. Allertonia 2: 355–392.Google Scholar
  5. Cayzer, L.W., Crisp, M.D. 2004. Reinstatement and revision of the genus Marianthus (Pittosporaceae). Austr. Syst. Bot. 17: 127–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cayzer, L.W., Crisp, M.D., Telford, I.R.H. 1999. Bursaria (Pittosporaceae): a morphometric analysis and revision. Austr. Syst. Bot. 12: 117–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cayzer, L.W., Crisp, M.D., Telford, I.R.H. 2000. Revision of Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae) in Australia. Austr. Syst. Bot. 13: 845–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cayzer, L.W., Crisp, M.D., Telford, I.R.H. 2004. Cladistic analysis and revision of Billardiera (Pittosporaceae). Austr. Syst. Bot. 17: 83–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cayzer, L.W., Crisp, M.D., Donaldson, S. 2007. Cheiranthera (Pittosporaceae). Austr. Syst. Bot. 20: 340–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chandler, G.T., Plunkett, G.M., Pinney, S.M., Cayzer, L.W., Gemmill, C.E.C. 2007. Molecular and morphological agreement in Pittosporaceae: phylogenetic analysis with nuclear ITS and plastid trnL-trnF sequence data. Austr. Syst. Bot. 20: 390–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chase, M.W. et al. 1993. Phylogenetics of seed plants: an analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 528–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clarkson, F.M., Clarkson, B.D., Gemmill, C.E.C. 2012. Biological flora of New Zealand 13. Pittosporum cornifolium, tāwhiri karo, cornel-leaved Pittosporum. New Zeal. J. Bot. 50(2): 185–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooper, R.C. 1956. The Australian and New Zealand species of Pittosporum. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 43: 87–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cronquist, A. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. New York: Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  15. Erbar, C., Leins, P. 1995. An analysis of the early floral development of Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Aiton and some remarks on the systematic position of the family Pittosporaceae. Feddes Repert. 106: 463–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Erbar, C., Leins, P. 2004. Sympetaly in Apiales (Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Pittosporaceae). S. Afr. J. Bot. 70: 458–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Erbar, C., Leins, P. 2010. Nectaries in Apiales and related groups. Plant Divers. Evol. 128: 269–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gemmill, C.E.C., Allan, G.J., Wagner, W.L., Zimmer, E.A. 2002. Evolution of Insular Pacific Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae): origin of the Hawaiian Radiation. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 22(1): 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gopalakrishnan, K.K., Thomas, T.D. 2014. Reproductive biology of Pittosporum dasycaulon, a rare medicinal tree endemic to Western Ghats. Bot. Studies 55: 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gowda, M. 1951. The genus Pittosporum in the Sino-indian region. J. Arnold Arb. 32: 263–343.Google Scholar
  21. Haas, J.E. 1977. The Pacific species of Pittosporum Banks ex Gaertn. (Pittosporaceae). Allertonia 1: 73–167.Google Scholar
  22. Hegnauer, R. 1969. Chemotaxomie der Pflanzen. Pittosporaceae. Band 5: 325–330. Basel: Birkhäuser.Google Scholar
  23. Hegnauer, R. 1990. Chemotaxomie der Pflanzen. Pittosporaceae. Band 9: 240–244. Basel: Birkhäuser.Google Scholar
  24. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN). 1979–. Goldblatt, P., Johnson, D.E. (eds.) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. (accessed May 2010).
  25. Jay, M. 1969. Chemosystematic researches on vascular plants. XIX. Flavonoid distribution in the Pittosporaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 62: 423–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Judd, W.S. 1996. The Pittosporaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Pap. Bot. 8: 15–26.Google Scholar
  27. Mauritzon, J. 1939. Contribution to the embryology of the orders Rosales and Myrtales. Lunds Univ. Arssk. 35: 1–121.Google Scholar
  28. Narayana, L.L., Radhakrishnaiah, M. 1982. Floral anatomy of Pittosporaceae: 5 species of Pittosporum. Can. J. Bot. 60(10): 1859–1867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Narayana, L.L., Sundari, K.T. 1981. Embryology of Pittosporaceae. lnd. J. Bot. 4: 123–131.Google Scholar
  30. Netolitzky, F. 1926. Anatomie der Angiospermen-Samen. Berlin: Gebrüder Bornträger.Google Scholar
  31. Nicolas, A.N., Plunkett, G.M. 2014. Diversification times and biogeographic patterns in Apiales. Bot. Review 80: 30–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pax, F. 1891. Pittosporaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. (eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien ed. 1, vol. 3 (2a). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, pp. 106–114.Google Scholar
  33. Pritzel, E. 1930. Pittosporaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. (eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 18a. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, pp. 265–285.Google Scholar
  34. Sakai, A.K., Wagner, W.L., Ferguson, D.M., Herbst, D.R. 1995. Origins of dioecy in the Hawaiian flora. Ecology 76(8): 2517–2529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schlessman, M.A., Vary, L.B., Munzinger, J., Lowry II, P.P. 2014. Incidence and evolution of dioecy in the island flora of New Caledonia. Int. J. Plant Sci. 175: 271–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schodde, R. 1972. Papuasian species of Pittosporum. Austr. J. Bot. Suppl. no. 3: 3–60.Google Scholar
  37. Solereder, H. 1898. Systematische Anatomie der Dicotyledonen. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke.Google Scholar
  38. Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Accessed September 2016.
  39. Stuhlfauth, T., Fock, H., Huber, H., Klug, K. 1985. The distribution of fatty acids including petroselinic and tariric acids in the fruit and seed oils of the Pittosporaceae, Araliaceae, Umbelliferae, Simarubaceae and Rutaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 13: 447–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Takhtajan, A. 1997. Diversity and classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Thorp, R.W. 2000. The collection of pollen by bees. Plant Syst. Evol. 222: 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Utteridge, T.M.A. 2000. The subalpine members of Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae) from Mt Jaya, New Guinea. Contributions to the Flora of Mt Jaya, II. Kew Bull. 55(3): 699–710. [Fig. 2: Pittosporum spissescens].Google Scholar
  43. Van Tieghem, P. 1884. Sur la structure et les affinités des Pittosporées. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 31: 383–385.Google Scholar
  44. Wilkinson, H.P. 1992. Leaf anatomy of the Pittosporaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 110: 1–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhou, Q., Fu, D., Jin, X. 2005. Floral morphology and anatomy of Pittosporum tobira (Pittosporaceae). Nord. J. Bot. 23: 345–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Carolin
    • 1
  • V. Bittrich
    • 2
  1. 1.BerryAustralia
  2. 2.CampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations