Evolution of Chordate Cardiopharyngeal Muscles and the Origin of Vertebrate Head Muscles
Recent findings that urochordates are the closest sister group of vertebrates have dramatically changed our understanding of chordate evolution and of the origin of the vertebrate head and its muscles. To better understand the evolution and diversity of chordates, in particular the morphological and taxonomical diversity of the vertebrates, it is crucial to investigate the origin, development, and comparative anatomy of not only hard tissues but also of soft tissues such as muscles. Building on the recent discovery of the cardiopharyngeal field in urochordates and on the comparative anatomy of chordate and vertebrate muscles, in this chapter we focus on the broader comparative and developmental anatomy of chordate muscles and the origin of vertebrate cephalic muscles.
KeywordsCardiopharyngeal field Evo-devo
We would like to thank all the other members of the First International Meeting on the Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Head-Heart Muscles held in May 2014 at Howard University and in particular among them Michael Levine, Eldad Tzahor, Robert Kelly, Lionel Christiaen, Julia Molnar, and Drew Noden who collaborated with us in the Nature paper that was published as a result of that meeting, and that is a key basis for the present chapter. We are also thankful to numerous other colleagues that have discussed with us subjects related to the issues included in this chapter. Our gratitude goes furthermore to Peter Johnston and Virginia Abdala for reviewing the current chapter.
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