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Oncolytic Virus Immunotherapy in Sarcoma

  • Varun Monga
  • Seth M. Maliske
  • Mohammed MilhemEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are tumor-specific, live agents that actively replicate and function to kill cancer and associated stromal cells through a dual mechanism—a direct, cytotoxic effect and an indirect immune-mediated response. Because OVs are live viral particles, recombinant technologies are used to engineer safe and effective viruses that have a strong anti-tumor response yet maintain low pathogenicity towards normal host cells. Delivery of the virus is accomplished either by the intravenous route or a direct intratumoral injection. Preclinical and clinical investigation of OVs in treatment for sarcomas has increased over the past decade. The first trial investigating use of OVs in resistant sarcoma began in 2010. As such, the use of these viruses in sarcoma is in its infancy. Several trials are currently accruing patients with histologically confirmed soft-tissue and bone sarcoma studying use of oncolytic viruses alone and in combination with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy. Considering avenues to further enhance the benefit of this modality in the treatment in sarcomas and other tumors offers much promise for the future.

Keywords

Oncolytic virus Immunotherapy Sarcoma TVEC 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Varun Monga
    • 1
  • Seth M. Maliske
    • 1
  • Mohammed Milhem
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow TransplantationUniversity of Iowa Carver College of MedicineIowa CityUSA

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