Advertisement

From Fossil to Renewable Energy Sources

  • Carsten CroonenbroeckEmail author
  • Jens Lowitzsch
Chapter

Abstract

The transformation of energy systems from fossil to renewable sources, the energy transition, is a global trend. The shift towards green and sustainable energy systems that has gained momentum over the past 25 years is reflected by policy decisions of governments around the world encompassing around 144 countries having corresponding policy targets in place already in 2014. This Chapter provides an overview of the forces driving the energy transition in the countries under consideration. Comparing countries with each other in particular with regard to the current energy production landscape, the present challenges and the future prospects for policy development we describe common elements as well as differences thus identifying – where possible – clusters and drawing brief conclusions in Section 2.1. The motivations underlying the Energy Transition are diverse and manifold. They differ from country to country and sometimes even between regions of the same country rooting in the specific challenges determined by geography, the historical development of national energy markets and cultural factors. We also observe that these motivations often are het-erogeneous including conflicting elements resulting in discrepancies between the declared goals regarding the deployment of RE and the actually implemented energy policies. A discussion of structural differences of fossil and RE production follows in Section 2.2. To illustrate the state of affairs in the countries under consideration we provide an overview of the energy mix for each country, regarding total energy production, consump-tion and, especially, electricity production. We conclude with a short summary of the impact that digitalisation has on the Energy Transition in Section 2.3.

References

  1. Aitzhan, N. Z., & Svetinovic, D. (2016). Security and privacy in decentralized energy trading through multi-signatures, blockchain and anonymous messaging streams. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TDSC.2016.2616861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arthur, W. B. (2017). Where is technology taking the economy? Seattle: McKinsey Quarterly.Google Scholar
  3. Bahramirad, S., Svachula, J., Khodaei, A., & Aguero, J. R. (2014, December 15). Community microgrids: A new paradigm for electricity delivery. Electric Light & Power. Retrieved April 27, 2018, from http://www.elp.com/articles/powergrid_international/print/volume-19/issue-12/features/comed-builds-community-microgrids-one-neighborhood-at-a-time.html.
  4. Coase, R. H. (1937). The nature of the firm. Economica, 4, 386–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. EIA. (2016). Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/pdf/sec1_7.pdf.
  6. Emerton. (2017). Emerton whitepaper—Blockchain in the energy sector. Retrieved April 27, 2018, from http://www.emerton.co/blockchain-in-the-energy/.
  7. Finon, D. (2006). Incentives to invest in liberalised electricity industries in the North and South. Differences in the need for suitable institutional. Energy Policy, 34(5), 601–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grid+. (2017). Grid+ whitepaper v2.0—The future of energy. Retrieved April 27, 2018, from https://gridplus.io/assets/Gridwhitepaper.pdf.
  9. Guinard, D., (2017). The ledger of every thing: What Blockchain Technology can (and cannot) do for the IoT. Foreword by Don Tapscott, Blockchain Research Institute.Google Scholar
  10. Kounelis, I., Steri, G., Giuliani, R., Geneiatakis, D., Neisse, R., & Nai-Fovino, I. (2017). Fostering consumers’ energy market through smart contracts. 2017 International Conference in Energy and Sustainability in Small Developing Economies (ES2DE), pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  11. LO3ENERGY. (n.d.). Retrieved April 27, 2018, from https://lo3energy.com/innovations/.
  12. Nakamoto, S. (2008). Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cashsystem. Retrieved June 2, 2018, from https://bitcoin.org/en/bitcoin-paper.
  13. Northeast Group. (2017, June). Western Europe smart grid: Market forecast (2017–2027). Retrieved April 27, 2018, from www.northeast-group.com.
  14. Pop, C., Cioara, T., Antal, M., Anghel, I., Salomie, I., & Bertoncini, M. (2018). Blockchain based decentralized management of demand response programs in smart energy grids. Sensors, 18(1), 162.  https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. REN21. (2017). Renewables 2017. Global status report. Paris: REN21.Google Scholar
  16. Schiener, D. (2017). A primer on IOTA. IOTA Blog, May 21. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from https://blog.iota.org/a-primer-on-iota-with-presentation-e0a6eb2cc621.
  17. Sensfuß, F., Ragwitz, M., & Genoese, M. (2008). The merit-order effect: A detailed analysis of the price effect of renewable electricity generation on spot market prices in Germany. Energy Policy, 36(8), 3086–3094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Siegel, D. (2009). Pull: The power of the semantic web to transform your business. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  19. Soshinskaya, M., Crijns-Graus, W. H. J., Guerrero, J. M., & Vasquez, J. C. (2014). Microgrids: Experiences, barriers and success factors. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 40, 659–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. van Tilborg, H. C. A., & Jajodia, S. (2011). Encyclopedia of cryptography and security (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vermeulen, J. (2017, April 22). Bitcoin and Ethereum vs Visa and PayPal—Transactions per second. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from https://mybroadband.co.za/news/banking/206742-bitcoin-and-ethereum-vs-visa-and-paypal-transactions-per-second.html.
  22. Ton, D. T., & Smith, M. A. (2012). The U.S. department of energy’s microgrid initiative. The Electricity Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2012.09.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Unruh, G. C., & Carrillo-Hermosilla, J. (2006). Globalizing carbon lock-in. Energy Policy, 34(10), 1185–1197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yildiz, Ö. (2013). Energiegenossenschaften in Deutschland—Bestandsentwicklung und institutionenökonomische Analyse. Zeitschrift für das gesamte Genossenschaftswesen (ZfgG), Jg. 63, Heft 3, S. 173–186.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agrar- und umweltwissenschaftliche FakultätUniversität RostockRostockGermany
  2. 2.European University ViadrinaFrankfurt (Oder)Germany

Personalised recommendations