Advertisement

Neuropsychological Evaluation of Culturally/Linguistically Diverse Older Adults

  • Monica Rivera MindtEmail author
  • Alyssa Arentoft
  • Kelly Coulehan
  • Angela C. Summers
  • Kayla Tureson
  • Maral Aghvinian
  • Desiree A. Byrd
Chapter
Part of the Clinical Handbooks in Neuropsychology book series (CHNEURO)

Abstract

The US population is becoming both older and more culturally and linguistically diverse. These changes in the demographic profile of the USA highlight the urgent need for clinical neuropsychologists to be equipped to competently evaluate the growing population of older individuals from culturally/linguistically diverse backgrounds. However, there is a relative dearth of empirically based, practical resources specifically targeted toward serving such individuals. The aim of this chapter is to identify some of the most salient challenges in the evaluation of culturally/linguistically diverse underrepresented minority (URM) older adults and provide some guidelines to help face these challenges. Herein, we examine sociocultural issues germane to older patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation, discuss relevant assessment considerations, and offer concrete recommendations to aid neuropsychologists to engage in empirically supported, culturally responsive neuropsychological evaluation with culturally/linguistically diverse and underrepresented, older populations.

Keywords

Cultural neuropsychology Ethnic minorities Underrepresented minority Culturally responsive assessment Diversity Cultural competence Neuropsychological evaluation Neurocognitive disorders Neurocognitive impairment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by an Alzheimer’s Association Research Grant to Promote Diversity (AARG-D) to MRM.

References

  1. 1.
    Mather M. Fact sheet: aging in the United States. Population Reference Bureau. 2016.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ortman JM, Velkoff VA, Hogan H. An aging nation: the older population in the United States. Edited by Bureau USC. Washington, DC; 2014. p. 1–28.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Verney SP, Bennett J, Hamilton JM. Cultural considerations in the neuropsychological assessment of American Indians/Alaska Natives. In: Ferraro RF, editor. Minority and cross-cultural aspects of neuropsychological assessment. 2nd ed. New York: Taylor & Francis; 2016. p. 115–58.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rivera Mindt M, Arentoft A, Kubo Germano K, D’Aquila E, Scheiner D, Pizzirusso M, Sandoval TC, Gollan T. Neuropsychological, cognitive, and theoretical considerations for the evaluation of bilingual individuals. Neuropsychol Rev. 2008;18:255–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hilty DM. Advancing science, clinical care and education: shall we up-date Engel’s biopsychosocial model to a Bio-psycho-socio-cultural model. Psychol Cogn Sci Open J. 2015;1:e1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ardila A. Cultural values underlying psychometric cognitive testing. Neuropsychol Rev. 2005;15:185–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Byrd D, Miller S, Reilly J, Weber S, Wall ST, Heaton R. Early environmental factors, ethnicity, and adult cognitive test performance. Clin Neuropsychol. 2006;20:243–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dotson VM, Kitner-Triolo M, Evans MK, Zonderman AB. Effects of race and socioeconomic status on the relative influence of education and literacy on cognitive functioning. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2009;15:580–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Manly JJ. Critical issues in cultural neuropsychology: profit from diversity. Neuropsychol Rev. 2008;18:179–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rivera Mindt M, Byrd D, Saez P, Manly JJ. Increasing culturally competent neuropsychological services for ethnic minority populations: a call to action. Clin Neuropsychol. 2010;24:429–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schwartz BS, Glass TA, Bolla KI, Stewart WF, Glass G, Rasmussen M, Bressler J, Shi W, Bandeen-Roche K. Disparities in cognitive functioning by race/ethnicity in the Baltimore Memory Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:314–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Minority Health and Health Disparities Research and Education Act of 2000. 2000. p. 2498.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Richardson LD, Babcock IC, Tamayo-Sarver JH. Racial and ethnic disparities in the clinical practice of emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10:1184–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cargill VA, Stone VE. HIV/AIDS: a minority health issue. Med Clin N Am. 2005;89:895–912.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fiscella K, Franks P, Gold MR, Clancy CM. Inequality in quality: addressing socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic disparities in health care. J Am Med Assoc. 2000;283:2579–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report – United States. 2013. Edited by DHHS2013.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Office of Minority Health: Minority health disparities at a glance. Edited by Services UDoHaH2017, June 29.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mayeda ER, Glymour MM, Quesenberry CP, Whitmer RA. Inequalities in dementia incidence between six racial and ethnic groups over 14 years. Alzheimers Dement. 2016;12:216–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cooper C, Tandy AR, Balamurali TB, Livingston G. A systematic review and meta-analysis of ethnic differences in use of dementia treatment, care, and research. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;18:193–203.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alzheimer’s Association. Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s & Dement. 2015;11:332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clark CM, DeCarli C, Mungas D, Chui HI, Higdon R, Nuñez J, Fernandez H, Negrón M, Manly JJ, Ferris S, Perez A, Torres M, Ewbank D, Glosser G, van Belle G. Earlier onset of Alzheimer disease symptoms in Latino individuals compared with Anglo individuals. Arch Neurol. 2005;62:774–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dahodwala N, Siderowf A, Xie M, Noll E, Stern M, Mandell DS. Racial differences in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:1200–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Campos M, Edland SD, Peavy GM. An exploratory study of APOE-ε4 genotype and risk of Alzheimer’s disease in Mexican Hispanics. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61:1038–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reitz C, Mayeux R. Alzheimer disease: epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, risk factors and biomarkers. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014;88:640–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gallant MP, Spitze G, Groove JG. Chronic illness delf-care and the family lives of older adults: a synthetic review across four ethnic groups. J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2010;25:21–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dodani S. Excess coronary artery disease risk in South Asian immigrants: can dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein explain increased risk? J Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4:953–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reitz C, Patel B, Tang M, Manly JJ, Mayeux R, Luchsinger JA. Relation between vascular risk factors and neuropsychological test performance among elderly persons with Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Sci. 2007;257:194–201.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rilling LM, Lucas JA, Ivnik RJ, Smith GE, Willis FB, Ferman TJ, Petersen RC, Graff-Radford NR. Mayo’s Older African American Normative Studies: norms for the mattis dementia rating scale. Clin Neuropsychol. 2005;19:229–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Evans JD, Miller SW, Byrd DA, Heaton RK. Cross-cultural applications of the Halstead-Reitan batteries. In: Fletcher-Janzen E, Strickland TL, Reynolds CR, editors. Handbook of cross-cultural neuropsychology. New York: Springer; 2000. p. 287–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Arnold BR, Montgomery GT, Castaneda I, Longoria R. Acculturation and performance of Hispanics on selected Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological tests. Assessment. 1994;1:239–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gladsjo JA, Evans JD, Schuman CC, Peavy GM, Miller SW, Heaton RK. Norms for letter and category fluency: demographic corrections for age, education, and ethnicity. Assessment. 2006;6:147–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jacobs DM, Sano M, Albert S, Schofield P, Dooneief G, Stern Y. Cross-cultural neuropsychological assessment: a comparison of randomly selected, demographically matched cohorts of English- and Spanish-speaking older adults. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1997;19:331–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Longobardi P, Cummings J, Anderson-Hanley C. Multicultural perspectives on the neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric assessment and treatment of the elderly. In: Fletcher-Janzen E, Strickland TL, Reynolds CR, editors. Handbook of cross-cultural neuropsychology. New York: Springer; 2000. p. 123–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lowenstein DA, Duara R, Arguelles T, Arguelles S. Use of the fuld object-memory evaluation in the detection of mild dementia among Spanish- and English-speaking groups. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1995;3:300–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Manly JJ, Jacobs DM, Sano M, Bell K, Merchant CA, Small SA, Stern Y. Neurocognitive test performance among non-demented elderly African Americans and Whites. Neurology. 1998;50:1238–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stricks L, Pittman J, Jacobs D, Sano M, Stern Y. Normative data for a brief neuropsychological battery administered to English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling elders. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1998;4:311–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weiss LG, Chen H, Harris JG, Holdnack HA, Saklofske DH. WAIS-IV use in societal context. In: Weiss LG, Saklofske DH, Coalson D, Raiford SE, editors. WAIS-IV clinical use and interpretation: scientist practitioner perspectives. London: Elsevier Inc.; 2010. p. 97–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Adams RL, Boake C, Crain C. Bias in a neuropsychological test classification related to education, age, and ethnicity. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1982;50:143–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Diehr MC, Cherner M, Wolfson TJ, Miller SW, Grant I, Heaton RK. The 50 and 100-item short forms of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT): demographically corrected norms and comparisons with the full PASAT in normal and clinical samples. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2003;25:571–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Taylor MJ, Heaton RK. Sensitivity and specificity of WAIS-III/WMS-III demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2001;7:867–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Manly JJ, Jacobs DM, Sano M, Bell K, Merchant CA, Small SA. Cross-cultural comparison of neuropsychological test performance and diagnosis of dementia. Neurology. 1998;50:91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Norman MA, Evans JD, Miller WS, Heaton RK. Demographically corrected norms for the California Verbal Learning Test. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2000;22:80–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mungas D, Marshall SC, Weldon M, Haan M, Reed BR. Age and education correction of mini-mental state examination for English and Spanish-speaking elderly. Neurology. 1996;46:700–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Patton D, Duff K, Schoenberg M, Mold J, Scott J, Adams R. Performance of cognitively normal African Americans on the RBANS in community dwelling older adults. Clin Neuropsychol. 2003;17:515–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Manly JJ, Jacobs DM, Touradji P, Small SA, Stern Y. Reading level attenuates differences in neuropsychological test performance between African American and white elders. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2002;8:341–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Manly JJ, Touradji P, Tang M, Stern Y. Literacy and memory decline among ethnically diverse elders. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2003;25:680–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rivera Mindt M, Byrd DA, Ryan E, Robbins RN, Monzones J, Arentoft A, Kubo Germano K, Henninger D, Morgello S, for the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank. Characterization and sociocultural predictors of neuropsychological test performance in HIV+ Hispanic individuals. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2008;14:315–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Manlly JJ, Jacobs D, Sano M, Bell K, Merchant CA, Small SA, Stern Y. African American acculturation and neuropsychological test performance among nondemented community elders. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1998;4:77.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Harris JG, Tulsky DS, Schultheis MT. Assessment of the non-native English speaker: assimilating history and research findings to guide clinical practice. In: Tulsky DS, Saklofske DH, Chelune GJ, Heaton R, Ivnik RJ, Bornstein R, Prifitera A, Ledbetter M, editors. Clinical interpretation of the WAIS-III and WMS-III. San Diego: Academic; 2003. p. 343–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kennephol K, Douglas S, Nabors N, Hanks R. African American acculturation and neuropsychological test performance following traumatic brain injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2004;10:566–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Arentoft A, Byrd DA, Robbins RN, Monzones J, Miranda C, Rosario A, Crotty K, Fuentes A, Germano KK, D’Aquila E, Sheynin J, Morgello S, Rivera Mindt M. A multidimensional examination of the role of acculturation in neuropsychological functioning among HIV+ Latina/o Adults. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2012;34:814–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bialystok E, Craik FIM. Bilingualism and naming: implications for cognitive assessment. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2007;13:209–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zahodne LB, Schofield PW, Farrell MT, Stern Y, Manly JJ. Bilingualism does not alter cognitive decline or dementia risk among Spanish-speaking immigrants. Neuropsychology. 2014;28:238.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Steele CM, Aronson J. Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1995;69:797–811.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Thames AD, Hinkin CH, Byrd DA, Bilder RM, Duff KJ, Rivera Mindt M, Arentoft A, Streiff V. The effects of stereotype threat, perceived discrimination, and examiner race on neuropsychological performance: simple as black and white? J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2013;19:583–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Helms JE. Why is there no study of cultural equivalence in standardized cognitive ability testing? Am Psychol. 1992;47:1083–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Teresi JA, Holmes D, Ramirez M. Performance of cognitive tests among different racial/ethnic and education groups: findings of differential item functioning and possible item bias. J Ment Health Aging. 2001;7:79–89.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    American Psychological Association. Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Am Psychol. 2002;57:1060–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    American Psychological Association. Multicultural guidelines: an ecological approach to context, identity, and intersectionality. 2017. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/about/policy/multicultural-guidelines.pdf
  60. 60.
    Sue DW. Multidimensional facets of cultural competence. Couns Psychol. 2001;29:790–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sue DW, Arredondo P, McDavis RJ. Multicultural competencies/standards: a pressing need. J Couns Dev. 1992;70:477–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sue DW, Carter RT, Casas JM, Fouad NA, Ivey AE, Jensen M, LaFromboise T, Manese JE, Ponterotto JG, Vasquez-Nuttall E. Multicultural counseling competencies: individual and organizational development. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 1998.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Artiola i Fortuny L, Mullaney HA. Assessing patients whose language you do not know: can the absurd be ethical? Clin Neuropsychol. 1998;12:113–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Artiola i Fortuny L, Garolera M, Hermosillo RD, Feldman E, Fernandez Barillas H, Keefe R, et al. Research with Spanish-speaking populations in the United States: lost in translation a commentary and a plea. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2005;27:555–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Judd T, Capetillo D, Carrión-Baralt J, Mármol LM, San Miguel-Montes L, Navarrete MG, Silver CH. Professional considerations for improving the neuropsychological evaluation of hispanics: a National Academy of Neuropsychology education paper. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2009;24:127–35.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Llorente AM. Principles of neuropsychological assessment with Hispanics: theoretical foundations and clinical practice. New York: Springer; 2007.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brickman AM, Cabo R, Manlly JJ. Ethical issues in cross-cultural neuropsychology. Appl Neuropsychol. 2006;13:91–100.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sue DW, Gallardo ME, Neville HA. Case studies in multicultural counseling and therapy. Hoboken: Wiley; 2013.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Musa D, Schulz R, Harris R, Silverman M, Thomas SB. Trust in the health care system and the use of preventive health services by older black and white adults. Am J Public Health. 2009;99:1293–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wong TM, Strickland TL, Fletcher-Janzen E, Ardila A, Reynolds CR. Theoretical and practical issues in the neuropsychological assessment and treatment of culturally dissimilar patients. In: Fletcher-Janzen E, Strickland TL, Reynolds CR, editors. The handbook of cross cultural neuropsychology. New York: Kluwer-Plenum; 2000. p. 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Shiraev EB, Levy DA. Cross-cultural psychology: critical thinking and contemporary applications. 5th ed. Boston: Pearson Education; 2012.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sue DW, Sue DW. Counseling the culturally diverse: theory and practice. 7th. ed. New York: Wiley; 2016.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schnall E. Multicultural counseling and the Orthodox Jew. J Couns Dev. 2006;84:276–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jackson Y. Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Weiss M. Explanatory model interview catalogue (EMIC): framework for comparative study of illness. Transcult Psychiatry. 1997;34:235–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gotlib IH, Hammen CL. Handbook of depression. New York: Guilford; 2002.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lewis-Fernandez R, Das AK, Alfonso C, Weissman MM, Olfson M. Depression in US Hispanics: diagnostic and management considerations in family practice. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005;18:282–96.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pontón M. Research and assessment issues with Hispanic populations. In: Pontón M, León-Carrión J, editors. Neuropsychology and the Hispanic patient: a clinical handbook. Mahwah: Erlbaum; 2001. p. 39–58.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Potter GG, Plassman BL, Burke JR, Kabeto MU, Langa KM, Llewellyn DJ, Rogers MA, Steffens DC. Cognitive performance and informant reports in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia in African Americans and whites. Alzheimers Dement. 2009;5:445–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    O’Bryant SE. Exploring the relationship between culture and cognition. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2008;30:967–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Millet PE, Sullivan BF, Schwebel AI, Myers LJ. Black Americans’ and White Americans’ views of the etiology and treatment of mental health problems. Community Ment Health J. 1996;32:235–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Poreh A. Neuropsychological and psychological issues associated with cross-cultural and minority assessment. In: Ferraro RF, editor. Minority and cross-cultural aspects of neuropsychological assessment: Studies on neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Bristol: Swets & Zeitlinger; 2002. p. 329–43.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Echemendia RJ, Julian L. Neuropsychological assessment of Latino children. In: Ferraro RF, editor. Minority and cross-cultural aspects of neuropsychological assessment. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger; 2002. p. 182–203.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schwei RJ, Kadunc K, Nguyen AL, Jacobs EA. Impact of sociodemographic factors and previous interactions with the health care system on institutional trust in three racial/ethnic groups. Patient Educ Couns. 2014;96:333–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Pedraza O, Lucas JA, Smith GE, Willis FB, Graff-Radford NR, Ferman TJ, Petersen RC, Bowers D, Ivnik RJ. Mayo’s Older African American Normative Studies: confirmatory factor analysis of a core battery. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2005;11:184–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fujii D. Conducting a culturally informed neuropsychological evaluation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2016.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Spering CC, Hobson V, Lucas JA, Menon CV, Hall JR, O’Bryant SE. Diagnostic accuracy of the MMSE in detecting probable and possible Alzheimer’s disease in ethnically diverse highly educated individuals: an analysis of the NACC database. J Gerontol A Biomed Sci Med Sci. 2012;67:890–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gil L, Ruiz de Sánchez C, Gil F, Romero SJ, Pretelt Burgos F. Validation of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in Spanish as a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia in patients over 65 years old in Bogotá, Colombia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;30:655–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Storey JE, Rowand JTJ, Conforti DA, Dickson HG. The rowland universal dementia assessment scale (RUDAS): a multicultural cognitive assessment scale. Int Psychogeriatr. 2004;16:13–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wolfe N. Cross-cultural neuropsychology of aging and dementia: an update. In: Ferraro RF, editor. Minority and cross-cultural aspects of neuropsychological assessment. Bristol: Swets & Zeitlinger; 2002. p. 285–97.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Teng LE, Hasegawa K, Homma A, Imai Y, Larson E, Graves A, Sugimoto K, Yamaguchi T, Sasaki H, Chiu D, White LR. The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI): a practical test for cross-cultural epidemiological studies of dementia. Int J Psychogeriatr. 1994;6:45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Glosser G, Wolfe N, Albert ML, Lavine L, Steele JC, Calne DB, Schoenberg BS. Cross-cultural cognitive examination: validation of a dementia screening instrument for neuroepidemiological research. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1993;41:931–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Taussig IM, Dick M, Teng E, Kempler D. The taussig cross-cultural memory test. Los Angeles: Available from Andrus Gerontology Center, University of Southern California; 1993.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fuh J, Teng E, Lin K, Larson E, Wang S, Liu C, Chou P, Kuo BI, Liu H. The informant questionnaire on cognitive decline in the elderly (IQCODE) as a screening tool for dementia for a predominantly illiterate Chinese population. Neurology. 1995;45:92–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Malmstrom TK, Miller DK, Coats MA, Jackson P, Miller JP, Morris JC. Informant-based dementia screening in a population-based sample of African Americans. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2009;23:115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Heaton RK, Miller SW, Taylor MJ, Grant I. Revised comprehensive norms for an expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery: demographically adjusted neuropsychological norms for African American and Caucasian adults. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.; 2004.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Weiss LG, Saklofske DH, Coalson D, Raiford SE. WAIS-IV clinical use and interpretation scientist-practitioner perspectives. London: Academic; 2010.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kempler D, Teng EL, Dick M, Taussig IM, Davis DS. The effects of age, education, and ethnicity on verbal fluency. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1998;4:531–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mitrushina M, Boone K, Razani J, D’Elia LF. Handbook of normative data for neuropsychological assessment. 2nd. ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Strauss E, Sherman EMS, Spreen O. A compendium of neuropsychological tests: administration, norms, and commentary. 3rd. ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Acevedo AL, Loewenstein DA, Barker WW, Harwood DC, Luis C, Bravo M, Hurwitz D. Category fluency test: normative data for English-and Spanish-speaking elderly. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2000;6:706–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Artiola i Fortuny L, Hermosillo RD, Heaton RK, Pardee RE III. Manual de normas y procedimientos para la Batería Neuropsicológica en Español. Brookfield: Swets & Zeitlinger; 1999.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Casaletto KB, Umlauf A, Marquine M, Beaumont JL, Mungas D, Gershon R, Slotkin J, Akshoomoff N, Heaton RK. Demographically corrected normative standards for the Spanish language version of the NIH toolbox cognition battery. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2016;22:364–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Arango-Lasprilla, JC (Ed.). Commonly used Neuropsychological Tests for Spanish Speakers: Normative Data from Latin America [Special issue]. NeuroRehab. 2015; 37(4).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hsieh J, Tori C. Normative data on cross-cultural neuropsychological tests obtained from Mandarin-speaking adults across the life span. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22:283–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lucas JA, Ivnik RJ, Willis FB, Ferman TJ, Smith GE, Parfitt FC, Petersen RC, Graff-Radford NR. Mayo’s Older African Americans Normative Studies: normative data for commonly used clinical neuropsychological measures. Clin Neuropsychol. 2005;19:162–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Moering RG, Schinka JA, Mortimer JA, Graves AB. Normative data for elderly African Americans for the Stroop color and word test. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2004;19:61–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Sánchez-Benavides G, Peña-Casanova J, Casals-Coll M, Gramunt N, Manera RM, Puig-Pijoan A, Aguilar M, Robles A, Antúnez C, Frank-García A, Fernández-Martínez M, Blesa R, and for the NEURONORMA Study Team 2015. One-year reference norms of cognitive change in Spanish old adults: data from the NEURONORMA sample. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2015;31:378–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schneider ALC, Richey Sharrett A, Gottesman RF, Coresch J, Coker L, Wruck L, Selnes O, Deal J, Knopman D, Mosley TH. Normative data for eight neuropsychological tests in older blacks and whites from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2015;29:32–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gasquoine PG, Croyle KL, Cavazos-Gonzalez C, Sandoval O. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22:991–1001.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ostrosky-Solís F, Gomez-Perez M, Matute E, Rosselli M, Ardila A, Pineda D. NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY: neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and education level. Appl Neuropsychol. 2007;14:156–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Muñoz-Sandoval AF, Woodcock RW, McGrew KS, Mather N. Batería III Woodcock-Muñoz. Itasca: Riverside Publishing; 2005.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Woodcock RW, Munoz-Sandoval AF, Ruef ML, Alvarado CG. Woodcock-munoz language survey-revised. Itasca: Riverside Publishing; 2005.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pontón MO, Satz P, Herrera L, Ortiz F, Urrutia CP, Young R, D’Elia LF, Furst CJ, Namerow N. Normative data stratified by age and education for the Neuropsychological Screening Battery for Latinos (NeSBHIS): initial report. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1996;2:96–104.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mungas D, Reed BR, Haan MN, Gonzalez H. Spanish and English neuropsychological assessment scales: relationship to demographics, language, cognition, and independent functioning. Neuropsychology. 2005;19:466–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tuokko H, Chou P, Bowden S, Simard M, Ska B, Crossley M. Partial measurement equivalence of French and English versions of the Canadian study of health and aging neuropsychology battery. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2009;15:416–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mungas D, Reed BR, Crane PK, Haan MN, González H. Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (SENAS): further development and psychometric characteristics. Psychol Assess. 2004;16:347–59.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bowden SC, Cook MJ, Bardenhagen FJ, Shores EA, Carstairs JR. Measurement invariance of core cognitive abilities in heterogeneous neurological and community samples. Intelligence. 2004;33:363–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kang YW, Kim JK. Korean-California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT):a normative study. Kor J Clin Psychol. 1997;16:379–96.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kim H, Na DL. Normative data on the Korean version of the Boston Naming Test. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1999;21:127–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lee JH, Lee KU, Lee DY, Kim KW, Jhoo JH, Kim JH, Lee KH, Kim SY, Han SH, Woo JI. Development of the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) clinical and neuropsychological assessment batteries. J Gerontol Ser B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2002;57:47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lee DY, Lee KU, Lee JH, Kim KW, Jhoo JH, Kim SY, Yoon JC, Woo SI, Ha J, Woo JI. A normative study of the CERAD neuropsychological assessment battery in the Korean elderly. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2004;10:72–81.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Manly JJ, Schupf N, Tang MX, Stern Y. Cognitive decline and literacy among ethnically diverse elders. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2005;18:213–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Nell V. Cross-cultural neuropsychological assessment: theory and practice. Mahwah: Erlbaum; 2000.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Flores JC, Ostrosky-Solís F, Lozano A. Batería Neuropsicológica de Funciones Ejecutivas y Lóbulos Frontales (BANFE). Revista Neuropsicol Neuropsiquit Neurocienc. 2012;8:141–58.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Miranda, C., Arce Rentería, M., Fuentes, A., Coulehan, K., Arentoft, A., Byrd, D., Rosario, A., Monzones, J., Morgello, S., & Rivera Mindt, M. The relative utility of three English language dominance measures in predicting the neuropsychological performance of HIV+ bilingual Latino/a adults. Clin Neuropsychol 2016;30:165–84.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2016.1139185PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ostrosky-Solís F, Ardila A, Rosselli M. NEUROPSI: a brief neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1999;5:413–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Randolph C. Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Update-Spanish (RBANS Update). Bloomington: NCS Pearson; 2012.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Taussig M, Pontón MO. Issues in neuropsychological assessment of hispanic older adults: cultural and linguistic factors. In: Yeo G, Gallagher-Thompson D, editors. Ethnicity and the dementias. San Francisco: Taylor & Francis; 1996. p. 47–58.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rivera Mindt M, Robbins RN, Morgello S, Byrd DA, Ryan E, Monzones J. Characterization and sociocultural predictors of neuropsychological test performance in HIV+ Hispanic individuals. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2008;14:315–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Cuellar I, Arnold B, Maldonado R. Acculturation rating scale for Mexican Americans-II: a revision of the original ARSMA scale. Hisp J Behav Sci. 1995;17:275–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Marin G, Gamba RJ. A new measurement of acculturation for Hispanics: the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (BAS). Hisp J Behav Sci. 1996;18:297–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Marin G, Sabogal F, Marin BV, Otero-Sabogal R, Perez-Stable EJ. Development of a short acculturation scale for Hispanics. Hisp J Behav Sci. 1987;9:183–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Zea MC, Asner-Self KK, Birman D, Buki LP. The Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale: empirical validation with two Latino/Latina samples. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2003;9:107–26.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Berry J. Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In: Chun KM, Organista PB, Marin G, editors. Acculturation: advances in theory, measurement, and applied research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2003. p. 83–93.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Choi J, Madhavappallil T. Predictive factors of acculturation attitudes and social support among Asian immigrants in the USA. Int J Soc Welf. 2009;18:76–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Jang Y, Kim G, Chiriboga D. Knowledge of Alzheimer’s disease, feelings of shame, and awareness of services among Korean American elders. J Aging Health. 2010;22:419–33.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Lee SE, Lee HY, Diwan S. What do Korean American immigrants know about Alzheimer’s disease (AD)? The impact of acculturation and exposure to the disease on AD knowledge. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;25:66–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Llanque SM, Enriquez M. Interventions for Hispanic caregivers of patients with dementia: a review of the literature. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2012;27:23–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Boone K, Victor T, Wen J, Razani J, Ponton M. The association between neuropsychological scores and ethnicity, language, and acculturation variables in a large patient population. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22:355–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Razani J, Burciaga J, Madore M, Wong J. Effects of acculturation on tests of attention and information processing in an ethnically diverse group. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22:333–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Coffey DM, Marmol L, Schock L, Adams W. The effects of acculturation on the Wisconsin card sorting test by Mexican Americans. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2005;20:795–803.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sáez PA, Bender HA, Barr WB, Rivera Mindt M, Morrison CM, Hassenstab J, Rodriguez M, Vazquez B. The impact of education and acculturation on nonverbal neuropsychological test performance among Latino/a epilepsy patients. Appl Neuropsychol. 2014;21:108–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cuellar I, Harris LC, Jasso R. An Acculturation Scale for Mexican American normal and clinical populations. Hisp J Behav Sci. 1980;2:199–217.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Landrine H, Klonoff EA. African American Acculturation Scale Short Form (AAAS-SF). J Black Psychol. 1995;21:124–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Chung RH, Kim BS, Abreu JM. Asian American Multidimensional Accultural Scale (AAMAS). Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2004;10:66–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Soriano FI, Bandura A. Bicultural Self-Efficacy (BISE) in violent offenders and resilient matches: the development of the BISE Scale. Stanford: Stanford University; 1994.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Suinn RM, Ahuna C, Khoo G. Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA). Educ Psychol Meas. 1992;52:1041–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Phinney JS. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM): A new scale for use with diverse groups. J Adolesc Res. 1992;7:156–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Byrd DA, Sanchez D, Manlly JJ. Neuropsychological test performance among Caribbean-born and U.S.-born African American elderly: the role of age, education, and reading level. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2005;27:1056–69.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Mathews M, Abner E, Caban-Holt A, Dennis BC, Kryscio R, Schmitt F. Quality of education and memory test performance in older men: the New York University paragraph recall test normative data. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2013;10:776–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    O’Bryant SE, Lucas JA, Willis FB, Smith GE, Graff-Radford NR, Ivnik RJ. Discrepancies between self-reported years of education and estimated reading level among elderly community-dwelling African Americans: analysis of the MOAANS data. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22:327–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Schneider BC, Lichtenberg PA. Influence of reading ability on neuropsychological performance in African American elders. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2011;26:624–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Daugherty JC, Puente AE, Fasfous AF, Hidalgo-Ruzzante N, Perez-Garcia M. Diagnostic mistakes of culturally diverse individuals when using North American neuropsychological tests. Appl Neuropsychol: Adult. 2017;24:16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Crowe M, Clay OJ, Martin RC, Howard VJ, Wadley VG, Sawyer P, Allman RM. Indicators of childhood quality of education in relation to cognitive function in older adulthood. J Gerontol. 2013;68:198–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    National Center for Education Statistics. Percentage of 18- to 24-year-olds enrolled in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by level of institution and sex and race/ethnicity of student: 1970 through 2015. In: Digest of education statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education; 2017.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Wilkinson GS, Robertson GJ. Wide Range Achievement Test 4 professional manual. Lutz: Psychological Assessment Resources; 2006.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Holdnack HA. Wechsler Test of Adult Reading: WTAR. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation; 2001.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Sayegh P, Arentoft A, Thaler NS, Dean AC, Thames AD. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th edition word reading subtest. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2014;29:731–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Olsen JP, Fellows RP, Rivera Mindt M, Morgello S, Byrd DA. Reading ability as an estimator of premorbid intelligence: does it remain stable among ethnically diverse HIV+ adults? Clin Neuropsychol. 2015;29:1034–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Uttl B. North American Adult Reading Test: age norms, reliability, and validity. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2010;24:1123–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Sisco S, Gross AL, Shih RA, Sachs BC, Glymour MM, Bangen KJ, Benitez A, Skinner J, Schneider BC, Manly JJ. The rold of early-life educational quality and literacy in explaining racial disparities in cognition in late life. J Gerontol Ser B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2014;70:557–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Dotson VM, Kitner-Triolo M, Evans MK, Zonderman AB. Literacy-based normative data for low socioeconomic status African American. Clin Neuropsychol. 2008;22:989–1017.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Elbulok-Charcape MM, Rabin LA, Spadaccini AT, Barr WB, Zárate MA. Trends in the neuropsychological assessment of ethnic/racial minorities: a survey of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2014;20:353–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Acevedo AL, Lowenstein DA. Nonpharmacological cognitive interventions in aging and dementia. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2007;20:239–49.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    American Educational Research Association APA, & National Council on Measurement in Education. Standards for educational and psychological testing. 2014 ed. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education; 2014.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Gollan T, Montoya R, Cera C, Sandoval T. More use almost always means a smaller frequency effect: aging, bilingualism, and the weaker links hypothesis. J Mem Lang. 2008;58:87–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Bialystok E, Luk G. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual adults. Biling Lang Cogn. 2012;15:397–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Nicoladis E, Giovanni S. The role of a child’s productive vocabulary in the language choice of a bilingual family. First Lang. 2000;20:3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Martin-Rhee M, Bialystok E. The development of two types of inhibitory control in monolingual and bilingual children. Biling Lang Cogn. 2008;11:81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Gollan TH, Montoya RI, Werner G. Semantic and letter fluency in Spanish–English bilinguals. Neuropsychology. 2002;16:562–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Rosselli M, Ardila A, Araujo K, Weekes VA, Caracciolo V, Padilla M, Ostrosky-Solis F. Verbal fluency and repetition skills in healthy older Spanish–English bilinguals. Appl Neuropsychol. 2000;7:17–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Bialystok E, Klein R, Craik FIM, Viswanathan M. Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: evidence from the simon task. Psychol Aging. 2004;19:290–303.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Yeung CM, John PDS, Menec V, Tyas S. Is bilingualism associated with a lower risk of dementia in community-living older adults? Cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2014;28:326–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Anderson JA, Saleemi S, Bialystok E. Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive aging in monolingual and bilingual older adults. J Neurolinguistics. 2017;43:17–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Milberg WP, Hebben N, Kaplan E. The Boston process approach to neuropsychological assessment. In: Grant I, Adams K, editors. Neuropsychological assessment of neuropsychiatric disorders. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 1996. p. 58–80.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    White R, Rose F. The Boston process approach: a brief history and current practice. In: Goldstein G, Incagnoli TM, editors. Contemporary approaches to neuropsychological assessment: critical issues in neuropsychology. New York: Plenum; 1997. p. 171–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Manly JJ, Echemendia R. Race-specific norms: using the model of hypertension to understand issues of race, culture, and education in neuropsychology. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22:319–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Ardila A, Rodriguez-Menendez G, Rosselli M. Current issues in neuropsychological assessment with Hispanics/Latinos. In: Ferraro RF, editor. Minority and cross-cultural aspects of neuropsychological assessment. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger; 2002. p. 161–79.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Gass C, Brown M. Neuropsychological test feedback to patients with brain dysfunction. Psychol Assess. 1992;4:272–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Postal K, Armstrong K. Feedback that sticks: the art of effectively communicating neuropsychological assessment results. New York: Oxford University; 2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monica Rivera Mindt
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alyssa Arentoft
    • 3
  • Kelly Coulehan
    • 2
  • Angela C. Summers
    • 1
  • Kayla Tureson
    • 1
  • Maral Aghvinian
    • 3
  • Desiree A. Byrd
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyFordham UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyCalifornia State University, NorthridgeNorthridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations