Advertisement

Countering Proliferation: The Iran Nuclear Negotiations (2002–15)

  • Nicholas Wright
Chapter
Part of the New Perspectives in German Political Studies book series (NPG)

Abstract

The prevention of Iranian nuclear proliferation presented the EU collectively and the ‘E3’ of Germany, France and the UK individually with one of their most difficult foreign policy challenges in recent years. The chapter begins with a brief background to the crisis. It then examines German and British national interests and objectives in seeking to lead the international response alongside France. It shows how their ad hoc ‘E3’ leadership group simultaneously set them apart from, but also increasingly depended upon the support of, their other EU partners, exemplified by the need to maintain the sanctions regime the EU imposed on Iran throughout the period of the negotiations and upon which the E3’s leadership credibility was based.

Bibliography

  1. Ansari, A.M. (2006) Confronting Iran—The Failure of American Foreign Policy and the Roots of Mistrust (London: Hurst and Company).Google Scholar
  2. Blockmans, S. and Viaud, A. (2017) ‘EU Diplomacy and the Iran Nuclear Deal: Staying Power?’. CEPS Policy Insights No. 2017-28, Brussels, 14 July.Google Scholar
  3. Bowen, W.Q. and Brewer, J. (2011) ‘Iran’s Nuclear Challenge: Nine Years and Counting’. International Affairs, 87(4), pp. 923–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Denza, E. (2005) ‘Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: The European Union and Iran’. European Foreign Affairs Review, 10, pp. 289–311.Google Scholar
  5. Geranmayeh, E. (2017) The Coming Clash: Why Iran will Divide Europe from the United States. European Council on Foreign Relations, October.Google Scholar
  6. Harnisch, S. (2007) ‘Minilateral Cooperation and Transatlantic Coalition-building: The E3/EU-3 Iran Initiative’. European Security, 16(1), pp. 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. ICG (2006) ‘Iran: Is There a Way Out of the Nuclear Impasse?’ Middle East Report No. 51 (Brussels: International Crisis Group).Google Scholar
  8. Jones, S. (2009) ‘The Islamic Republic of Iran: An introduction’. Research Paper 09/92 (London: House of Commons Library).Google Scholar
  9. Joshi, S. (2013) The Permanent Crisis—Iran’s Nuclear Trajectory, Whitehall Paper 79 (London: RUSI).Google Scholar
  10. Kienzle, B. (2009) ‘Between Consensus and Dissonance: Explaining the EU’s IRAQ and IRAN Policies’. Fornet CFSP Forum, 7(3), pp. 12–16.Google Scholar
  11. Majd, H. (2008) The Ayatollah Begs to Differ: The Paradox of Modern Iran (New York: Doubleday).Google Scholar
  12. Mousavian, S.H., Lewis, P. and Dalton, R. (2013) Nuclear Iran: Negotiating a Way Out (Transcript) (London: Chatham House). Available at: http://www.chathamhouse.org/events/view/188579.Google Scholar
  13. Patrikarakos, D. (2012) ‘Lighting Iran’s Nuclear Fuse’. The World Today (London: Chatham House).Google Scholar
  14. Rittberger, V. and Zangl, B. (2006) International Organisation: Polity, Politics and Policy (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
  15. Sauer, T. (2007) ‘Coercive Diplomacy by the EU: The Case of Iran’. Discussion Papers in Diplomacy (The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’).Google Scholar
  16. Smith, B. (2010) Iran’s Nuclear Programme, and Sanctions, SN/IA/5275 (London: House of Commons Library), 13 October.Google Scholar
  17. Smith, B. (2014) Iran, the Nuclear Negotiations and Relations with the UK, SNIA/7010 (London: House of Commons Library), 3 December.Google Scholar
  18. Takeyh, R. and Maloney, S. (2011) ‘The Self-limiting Success of Iran Sanctions’. International Affairs, 87(6), pp. 1297–1312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Bibliography—Official Documents

  1. Auswärtiges Amt (2000) Deutsche Auβenpolitik 2000 (Berlin: Auswärtiges Amt).Google Scholar
  2. Auswärtiges Amt (2006) Preventing the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Key Documents, 2nd Edition. (Berlin: Auswärtiges Amt).Google Scholar
  3. Auswärtiges Amt (2007a) Iran: Let us Seize the Opportunity for New Talks (Berlin: Auswärtiges Amt). Available at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/EN/Aussenpolitik/RegionaleSchwerpunkte/NaherUndMittlererOsten/Iran/071205-iran.html.
  4. Auswärtiges Amt (2008) Vademecum für die Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (Berlin: Auswärtiges Amt).Google Scholar
  5. Auswärtiges Amt (2010b) Joint Statement by Foreign Ministers on Nuclear Disarmament and Non-proliferation—New York, 22 September (Berlin: Auswärtiges Amt).Google Scholar
  6. Auswärtiges Amt (2011a) Pressemitteilung: Außenminister Westerwelle: Unerlaubte Verbreitung von Nuklearmaterial und technologien verhindern (6 November) (Berlin: Auswärtiges Amt).Google Scholar
  7. Auswärtiges Amt (2011b) Schwerpunkte: Deutschland im Sicherheitsrat (Berlin: Auswärtiges Amt). Available at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Friedenspolitik/VereinteNationen/DEUimSicherheitsrat/101013-SchwerpunkteSRMitgliedschaft_node.html.
  8. Auswärtiges Amt (2011c) Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) (Berlin: Auswärtiges Amt). Available at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/EN/Aussenpolitik/Friedenspolitik/Abruestung_/Nukleares/NVV_node.html.
  9. Auswärtiges Amt (2016b) Jahresabrüstungsbericht 2016 (Berlin: Auswärtiges Amt). Available at: https://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/blob/290426/b0f7861be0fb9bbe6d24e2c7dc320996/170531-jab-2016-deu-data.pdf.
  10. Auswärtiges Amt and Bundesministerium der Verteidigung (2009) The European Security and Defence Policy (Berlin: Federal Foreign Office and Federal Ministry of Defence).Google Scholar
  11. Bundesministerium der Verteidigung (2006) Weissbuch 2006 zur Sicherheitspolitik Deutschlands und zur Zukunft der Bundeswehr (Berlin: Bundesministerium der Verteidigung).Google Scholar
  12. Bundesministerium der Verteidigung (2011) Defence Policy Guidelines: Safeguarding National Interests—Assuming International Responsibility—Shaping Security Together (Berlin: Bundesministerium der Verteidigung).Google Scholar
  13. Bundesministerium der Verteidigung (2016) Weissbuch 2016 zur Sicherheitspolitik Deutschlands und zur Zukunft der Bundeswehr (Berlin: Bundesministerium der Verteidigung).Google Scholar
  14. Bundesregierung (2001) Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage des Abgeordneten Carsten Hübner und der Fraktion der PDS – Drucksache 14/6319 – Deutsch-Iranische Beziehungen (Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag).Google Scholar
  15. Bundesregierung (2002) Unterrichtung durch die Bundesregierung – Bericht der Bundesregierung zum Stand der Bemühungen um Abrüstung, Rüstungskontrolle und Nichtverbreitung sowie über die Entwicklung der Streitkräftepotenziale (Jahresabrüstungsbericht 2001) (Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag).Google Scholar
  16. Bundesregierung (2004) Unterrichtung durch die Bundesregierung – Bericht der Bundesregierung zum Stand der Bemühungen um Rüstungskontrolle, Abrüstung und Nichtverbreitung sowie über die Entwicklung der Streitkräftepotenziale (Jahresabrüstungsbericht 2003) (Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag).Google Scholar
  17. Bundesregierung (2005) Unterrichtung durch die Bundesregierung – Bericht der Bundesregierung zum Stand der Bemühungen um Rüstungskontrolle, Abrüstung und Nichtverbreitung sowie über die Entwicklung der Streitkräftepotentiale (Jahresabrüstungsbericht 2004) (Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag).Google Scholar
  18. Bundesregierung (2006) Unterrichtung durch die Bundesregierung – Bericht der Bundesregierung zum Stand der Bemühungen um Rüstungskontrolle, Abrüstung und Nichtverbreitung sowie über die Entwicklung der Streitkräftepotenziale (Jahresabrüstungsbericht 2005) (Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag).Google Scholar
  19. Bundesregierung (2007a) “Europa gelingt gemeinsam” – Präsidentschaftsprogramm – 1. Januar–30. Juni 2007 (Berlin: Bundesregierung).Google Scholar
  20. Bundesregierung (2007b) G8 Summit—Chair’s Summary—Heiligendamm, 8 June (Berlin: Bundesregierung).Google Scholar
  21. Bundesregierung (2007c) G8 Summit—Heiligendamm Statement on Non-proliferation (Berlin: Bundesregierung).Google Scholar
  22. Bundesregierung (2008) Unterrichtung durch die Bundesregierung – Bericht der Bundesregierung zum Stand der Bemühungen um Rüstungskontrolle, Abrüstung und Nichtverbreitung sowie über die Entwicklung der Streitkräftepotenziale (Jahresabrüstungsbericht 2007) (Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag).Google Scholar
  23. Bundesregierung (2009a) Unterrichtung durch die Bundesregierung – Bericht der Bundesregierung zum Stand der Bemühungen um Rüstungskontrolle, Abrüstung und Nichtverbreitung sowie über die Entwicklung der Streitkräftepotenziale (Jahresabrüstungsbericht 2008) (Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag).Google Scholar
  24. Bundesregierung (2010a) Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Niema Movassat, Dr. Diether Dehm, Inge Höger, Alexander Ulrich und der Fraktion DIE LINKE. – Drucksache 17/2745 – Das iranische Atomprogramm und die Verhängung von Sanktionen seitens der EU gegen den Iran (Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag).Google Scholar
  25. Bundestag (2004) Deutscher Bundestag – 15. Wahlperiode – 138. Sitzung. Berlin, Donnerstag, den 11. November 2004 (Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag).Google Scholar
  26. Bundestag (2005) Deutscher Bundestag – 15. Wahlperiode – 183. Sitzung. Berlin, Mittwoch, den 29. Juni 2005 (Berlin: Deutscher Bundestag).Google Scholar
  27. Bush, G.W. (2002) State of the Union Address (Washington: State of the Union Address Library). Available at: http://stateoftheunionaddress.org/2002-george-w-bush.
  28. Consilium (2002) Conclusions—2425th Council Meeting—General Affairs—Brussels, 13 May 2002 (8649/02) (Brussels: Consilium).Google Scholar
  29. Consilium (2003a) European Security Strategy—A Secure Europe in a Better World (Brussels: Consilium).Google Scholar
  30. Consilium (2003b) EU Strategy Against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (15708/03) (Brussels: Consilium).Google Scholar
  31. Consilium (2004) Statement by Javier Solana, EU High Representative for the CFSP, on the Agreement on Iran’s Nuclear Programme (Brussels: Consilium).Google Scholar
  32. Consilium (2006) Statement by Germany, United Kingdom, France and the EU High Representative on the Iranian Nuclear Issue (Brussels: Consilium).Google Scholar
  33. Consilium (2008b) Council Conclusions and New Lines for Action by the European Union in Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Their Delivery Systems, 17 December (Brussels: Consilium).Google Scholar
  34. Consilium (2009a) EU-Iran—Basic Facts (Brussels: Consilium). Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/EU-IRAN_Basic_facts_April_2009.pdf.
  35. Consilium (2012) Factsheet—The European Union and Iran (Brussels: Consilium). Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/127364.pdf.
  36. European Commission (2001) COM (2001) 71 Final—Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council—EU relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran (Brussels: Commission of the European Communities).Google Scholar
  37. FCO (2000) Foreign Affairs Committee: Eighth Report of the Session 1999–2000—Weapons of Mass Destruction—Response of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (London: The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  38. FCO (2003) Foreign Affairs Committee: Foreign Policy Aspects of the War Against Terrorism—Tenth Report of Session 2002–03—Response of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, September 2003 (London: The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  39. FCO (2004a) Foreign Affairs Committee: Iran—Third Report of Session 2003–04—Response of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (London: The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  40. FCO (2004b) Foreign Affairs Committee: Foreign Policy Aspects of the War Against Terrorism—Second Report of Session 2003–04—Response of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, March 2004 (London: The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  41. FCO (2005) Foreign Affairs Committee: Sixth Report of the Session 2004–05—Foreign Policy Aspects of the War Against Terrorism—Response of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (London: The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  42. FCO (2006b) Foreign Affairs Committee: Foreign Policy Aspects of the War Against Terrorism—Government Response to the Committee’s Fourth Report of Session 2007–08 (London: The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  43. FCO (2008b) Fifth Report of the Foreign Affairs Committee—Session 2007–08—Global Security: Iran—Response of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (London: The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  44. Hansard (2003) Written Statements (Commons)—Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs—Iran—HC Deb 23 October 2003 vol 411 cc46-8WS (London: Houses of Parliament).Google Scholar
  45. Hansard (2007) Written Answers for 23 July 2007—Foreign and Commonwealth Office—Iran: Foreign Relations—Column 706W (London: Houses of Parliament).Google Scholar
  46. Hansard (2010) House of Commons Debates—Foreign Affairs and Defence—Column 180—26 May (London: Houses of Parliament).Google Scholar
  47. Hansard (2015) Iran: Nuclear Deal 15 July 2015—Column 894 (London: House of Parliament).Google Scholar
  48. House of Commons (2000b) Foreign Affairs Committee: Eighth Report, Session 1999–2000—Weapons of Mass Destruction (London: The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  49. House of Commons (2000c) Foreign Affairs Committee: Appendices to the Minutes of Evidence—Appendix 1—Memorandum Submitted by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (London: Houses of Parliament).Google Scholar
  50. House of Commons (2000d) Foreign Affairs Committee: Eighth Report, Session 1999–2000—Weapons of Mass Destruction—Report, Proceedings, Evidence and Appendices (London: The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  51. House of Commons (2003a) Foreign Affairs Committee: Minutes of Evidence—Examination of Witnesses (Questions 40–52)—10 June (London: Houses of Parliament). Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200203/cmselect/cmfaff/774/3061001.htm.
  52. House of Commons (2004b) Foreign Affairs Committee: Iran—Third Report of Session 2003–04 (London: The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  53. House of Commons (2006a) Foreign Affairs Committee: Minutes of Evidence—Examination of Witnesses (Questions 1–19)—8 February (London: Houses of Parliament).Google Scholar
  54. House of Commons (2008d) Foreign Affairs Committee: Global Security: Iran—Fifth Report of Session 2007–08 (London: The Stationery Office).Google Scholar
  55. IAEA (2003) Statement by the Iranian Government and Visiting EU Foreign Ministers—21 October 2003, Vienna. Available at: http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/focus/iaeairan/statement_iran21102003.shtml.
  56. Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations (2012) Non-Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, New York. Available at: http://www.new-york-un.diplo.de/Vertretung/newyorkvn/en/05/non-proliferation.html.
  57. UN (2010) Resolution 1929 (2010) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6335th Meeting, on 9 June 2010 (New York: United Nations).Google Scholar
  58. Westerwelle, G. (2012a) Rede Außenminister Guido Westerwelles auf dem “Forum für eine atomwaffenfreie Welt” in Astana, 29 August (Berlin: Auswärtiges Amt).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas Wright
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations