Advertisement

Hydrogen-Powered Fuel Cell and Hybrid Automobiles of the Near Future

  • Bahman Zohuri
Chapter

Abstract

Currently, providers of energy utilities are presented with the challenges of increased energy demand and the need to immediately address environmental concerns such as climate change and decreasing the pollution produced by transportation vehicles burning gasoline, for example. Due to population and economic growth, the global demand for energy is expected to increase by 50% over the next 25 years. This significant demand increase along with the dwindling supply of fossil fuels has raised concerns over the security of the energy supply. In view of the increased energy demand and environmental pollution, different approaches such as distributed generation and demand-side management have been proposed and are widely being put into practice. However, optimal utilization of the existing energy infrastructure is an issue that also needs to be addressed properly to deal with the major challenges that energy utilities are facing. A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen-fueled space rockets as well as automobiles and other transportation vehicles. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. Widespread use of hydrogen to fuel transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy.

References

  1. 1.
    G. Taljan, M. Fowler, C. Canizares, G. Verbic, Hydrogen storage for mixed wind--nuclear power plants in the context of a hydrogen economy. Int J Hydrog Energy 33(17), 4463–4475 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Hajimiragha, M.W. Fowler, C.A. Cañizares. Hydrogen economy impact on optimal planning and operation of integrated energy systems. In: Proceedings of the International Conference & Workshop on Micro-Cogeneration Technologies & Applications, Ottawa, April 2008Google Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    R.S.M. Arico. Measuring the oil vulnerability of Canadian cities. Simon Fraser University; Spring 2007. http://ir.lib.sfu.ca/bitstream/1892/4211/1/etd2765.pdf. Accessed 2008
  5. 5.
    J. Rifkin, The hydrogen economy: the creation of the worldwide energy web and the redistribution of power on earth (Penguin Putnam, New York, 2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering, The hydrogen economy: opportunities, costs, barriers and R&D needs (The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.L. Wald, Questions about a hydrogen economy. Sci. Am. 290, 40–47 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Benthem, G. Kramera, R. Ramerb, An options approach to investment in a hydrogen infrastructure. Energy Policy 34(17), 2949–2963 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Ramesohl, F. Merten, Energy system aspects of hydrogen as an alternative fuel in transport. Energy Policy 34(11), 1251–1259 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Adamson, Hydrogen from renewable resources—the hundred-year commitment. Energy Policy 32(10), 1231–1242 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. McDowall, M. Eames, Forecasts, scenarios, visions, backcasts and roadmaps to the hydrogen economy: a review of the hydrogen futures literature. Energy Policy 34(11), 1236–1250 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    F.A. Felder, A. Hajos, Using restructured electricity markets in the hydro-gen transition: the PJM case. In: Proc. IEEE: Special Issue on the Hydrogen Economy 94(10), 1864–1879 (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Prince-Richard, M. Whale, N. Djilali, A techno-economic analysis of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles. Int J Hydrog Energy 30(11), 1159–1179 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yohe G.W., Lasco R.D., Ahmad Q.K., Arnell N.W., Cohen S.J., Hope C., Janetos A.C., Perez R.T., 2007: Perspectives on climate change and sustainability. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Parry M.L., Canziani O.F., Palutikof J.P., van der Linden P.J., Hanson C.E., Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 811–841Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.B. Lovins, Twenty hydrogen myths. Rocky Mountain Institute, June 2003. http://www.rmi.org/images/other/Energy/E03-05-20HydrogenMyths.pdf. Accessed 2008
  16. 16.
    R. Hammerschlaga, P. Mazzab, Questioning hydrogen. Energy Policy 33(16), 2039–2043 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    U. Bossel, Does a hydrogen economy make sense? In: Proc. IEEE: Special Issue on the Hydrogen Economy 94(10), 1826–1837 (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.J. Andrews, Formulating and implementing public policy for new energy carriers. In: Proc. IEEE: Special Issue on the Hydrogen Economy 94(10), 1852–1863 (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Kulikovsky, Analytical Modelling of Fuel Cells, 1st edn. (Elsevier, USA, 2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Zohuri, Physics of Cryogenics: An Ultralow Temperature Phenomenon, 1st edn. (Elsevier, USA, 2017)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. Zohuri, Hybrid Energy Systems: Driving Reliable Renewable Sources of Energy Storage, 1st edn. (Springer, Cham, 2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Romm. Tesla trumps Toyota: why hydrogen cars can’t compete with pure electric cars. https://thinkprogress.org/tesla-trumps-toyota-why-hydrogen-cars-cant-compete-with-pure-electric-cars-326468e3dbc2/
  23. 23.
    Wind-to-Hydrogen Project. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research. Golden: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. September 2009. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. Berman, Fuel cells at center stage. New York Times (2013)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Davies, Honda is working on hydrogen technology that will generate power inside your car. Business Insider. 2013 Nov 23Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    U.S. DOE, Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: planned program activities for 2005–2015. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/mypp/
  27. 27.
    European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform Implementation Plan – Status 2006, in European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP) (2007)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.P. Meyers, Getting back into gear: fuel cell development after the hype. https://www.electrochem.org/dl/interface/wtr/wtr08/wtr08_p36-39.pdf
  29. 29.
    H. Tsuchiya, O. Kobayashi, Mass production cost of PEM fuel cell by learning curve. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 29, 985 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    European Commission, Community Research, “European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Program”, Sixth Framework Program, EUR 21241. http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/rtdinfo_en.html
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
    A. Hajimiragha, M. Fowler, C. Cañizares, Hydrogen economy transition in Ontario-Canada considering the electricity grid constraints. Int J Hydrog Energy 34, 5275–5293 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
    U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy “Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report 2015”Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mercedes hybrid bus combined fuel cell and diesel electric technology. Green Car Reports. https://www.greencarreports.com/news/1021808_mercedes-hybrid-bus-combines-fuel-cell-and-diesel-electric-technology

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bahman Zohuri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringGalaxy Advanced Engineering Inc., University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations