Developmental Defects of Enamel

  • Paulo M. Yamaguti
  • Renata N. Cabral


Developmental defects of enamel (DDE) can be caused by any local, systemic, environmental, or genetic factor that disturbs amelogenesis (1). The affected enamel phenotype ranges from small opacities to total enamel absence, depending on the time, type, and intensity of the disturbance. Clinically, the heterogeneous clinical manifestation and lack of treatment protocols make diagnosis and treatment a difficult challenge for the professionals. In this chapter, three different developmental defects that usually affect a group of teeth or all dentition are presented: amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), fluorosis, and molar and incisor hypomineralization (MIH). This chapter aims to revise the current knowledge in the DDE molecular etiology, to define the three different conditions and to discuss the differential diagnosis. Some treatment options are also presented.


Developmental defects of enamel Amelogenesis imperfecta Fluorosis Molar and incisor hypomineralization 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paulo M. Yamaguti
    • 1
  • Renata N. Cabral
    • 2
  1. 1.Oral Care Center for Inherited Diseases, Oral Health Unit, University Hospital of BrasiliaUniversity of BrasiliaBrasiliaBrazil
  2. 2.Pediatric Dentistry in Private PracticeBrasiliaBrazil

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