Towards a Binary Object Notation for RDF

  • Victor CharpenayEmail author
  • Sebastian Käbisch
  • Harald Kosch
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10843)


The recent JSON-LD standard, that specifies an object notation for RDF, has been adopted by a number of data providers on the Web. In this paper, we present a novel usage of JSON-LD, as a compact format to exchange and query RDF data in constrained environments, in the context of the Web of Things.

A typical exchange between Web of Things agents involves small pieces of semantically described data (RDF data sets of less than hundred triples). In this context, we show how JSON-LD, serialized in binary JSON formats like EXI4JSON and CBOR, outperforms the state-of-the-art. Our experiments were performed on data sets provided by the literature, as well as a production data set exported from Siemens Desigo CC.

We also provide a formalism for JSON-LD and show how it offers a lightweight alternative to SPARQL via JSON-LD framing.


Web of Things Internet of Things SPARQL RDF EXI JSON-LD HDT CBOR 


  1. 1.
    Álvarez-García, S., Brisaboa, N.R., Fernández, J.D., Martínez-Prieto, M.A.: Compressed k2-Triples for Full-In-Memory RDF Engines. CoRR abs/1105.4004 (2011)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atzori, L., Iera, A., Morabito, G.: The internet of things: a survey. Comput. Netw. 54(15), 2787–2805 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boldt, D., Hasemann, H., Karnstedt, M., Kroeller, A., von der Weth, C.: SPARQL for networks of embedded systems, pp. 93–100. IEEE, December 2015Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bormann, C., Ersue, M., Keranen, A.: Terminology for Constrained-Node Networks, May 2014.
  5. 5.
    Charpenay, V., Käbisch, S., Kosch, H.: \(\mu \)RDF store: towards extending the semantic web to embedded devices. In: Blomqvist, E., Hose, K., Paulheim, H., Ławrynowicz, A., Ciravegna, F., Hartig, O. (eds.) ESWC 2017. LNCS, vol. 10577, pp. 76–80. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fernández, J.D., Llaves, A., Corcho, O.: Efficient RDF interchange (ERI) format for RDF data streams. In: Mika, P., et al. (eds.) ISWC 2014. LNCS, vol. 8797, pp. 244–259. Springer, Cham (2014). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fernández, J.D., Martínez-Prieto, M.A., Gutierrez, C.: Compact representation of large RDF data sets for publishing and exchange. In: Patel-Schneider, P.F., Pan, Y., Hitzler, P., Mika, P., Zhang, L., Pan, J.Z., Horrocks, I., Glimm, B. (eds.) ISWC 2010. LNCS, vol. 6496, pp. 193–208. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guinard, D.: A web of things application architecture - integrating the real-world into the web. Ph.D. thesis, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, August 2011Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gutierrez, C., Hurtado, C., Mendelzon, A.O.: Foundations of semantic web databases, p. 95. ACM Press (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hartig, O.: An overview on execution strategies for linked data queries. Datenbank-Spektrum 13(2), 89–99 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hasemann, H., Kroller, A., Pagel, M.: RDF provisioning for the internet of things, pp. 143–150 (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hasemann, H., Kröller, A., Pagel, M.: The Wiselib TupleStore: a modular RDF database for the internet of things. CoRR, abs/1402.7228, March 2014Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hayes, P.J., Patel-Schneider, P.: RDF 1.1 Semantics.
  14. 14.
    Käbisch, S., Kamiya, T.: Web of Things (WoT) Thing Description. W3C First Public Working Draft, W3C, September 2017.
  15. 15.
    Käbisch, S., Peintner, D., Anicic, D.: Standardized and efficient RDF encoding for constrained embedded networks. In: Gandon, F., Sabou, M., Sack, H., d’Amato, C., Cudré-Mauroux, P., Zimmermann, A. (eds.) ESWC 2015. LNCS, vol. 9088, pp. 437–452. Springer, Cham (2015). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kazuo, K., Kovatsch, M., Davuluru, U.: Web of Things (WoT) Architecture. W3C First Public Working Draft, W3C, September 2017.
  17. 17.
    Kifer, M., Lausen, G., Wu, J.: Logical foundations of object-oriented and frame-based languages. J. ACM 42(4), 741–843 (1995)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Longley, D., Kellogg, G., Lanthaler, M., Sporny, M.: JSON-LD 1.0 Processing Algorithms and API. W3C Recommendation, W3C, January 2014.
  19. 19.
    Loseto, G., Ieva, S., Gramegna, F., Ruta, M., Scioscia, F., Di Sciascio, E.: Linked data (in low-resource) platforms: a mapping for constrained application protocol. In: Groth, P., Simperl, E., Gray, A., Sabou, M., Krötzsch, M., Lecue, F., Flöck, F., Gil, Y. (eds.) ISWC 2016. LNCS, vol. 9982, pp. 131–139. Springer, Cham (2016). Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peintner, D., Brutzman, D.: EXI for JSON (EXI4JSON). W3C Working Draft, W3C, August 2016.
  21. 21.
    Pérez, J., Arenas, M., Gutierrez, C.: Semantics and complexity of SPARQL. In: Cruz, I., Decker, S., Allemang, D., Preist, C., Schwabe, D., Mika, P., Uschold, M., Aroyo, L.M. (eds.) ISWC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4273, pp. 30–43. Springer, Heidelberg (2006). Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pfisterer, D., Romer, K., Bimschas, D., Kleine, O., Mietz, R., Truong, C., Hasemann, H., Kröller, A., Pagel, M., Hauswirth, M., Karnstedt, M., Leggieri, M., Passant, A., Richardson, R.: SPITFIRE: toward a semantic web of things. IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(11), 40–48 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shelby, Z.: Embedded web services. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 17(6), 52–57 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Speicher, S., Arwe, J., Malhotra, A.: Linked Data Platform 1.0, February 2015.
  25. 25.
    Sporny, M., Kellogg, G., Longley, D., Lanthaler, M.: JSON-LD Framing 1.1. W3C Draft Community Group Report, October 2017.
  26. 26.
    Sporny, M., Longley, D., Kellogg, G., Lanthaler, M., Lindström, N.: JSON-LD 1.0 - A JSON-based Serialization for Linked Data. W3C Recommendation, W3C, January 2014.
  27. 27.
    Trifa, V.M.: Building blocks for a participatory web of things: devices, infrastructures, and programming frameworks. Ph.D. thesis, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, August 2011Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Verborgh, R., et al.: Querying datasets on the web with high availability. In: Mika, P., et al. (eds.) ISWC 2014. LNCS, vol. 8796, pp. 180–196. Springer, Cham (2014). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Corporate Technology, Siemens AGMunichGermany
  2. 2.Fakultät für Informatik und Mathematik, Universität PassauPassauGermany

Personalised recommendations