Advertisement

Exploring Enterprise Knowledge Graphs: A Use Case in Software Engineering

  • Marta Sabou
  • Fajar J. Ekaputra
  • Tudor Ionescu
  • Juergen Musil
  • Daniel Schall
  • Kevin Haller
  • Armin Friedl
  • Stefan Biffl
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10843)

Abstract

When reusing software architectural knowledge, such as design patterns or design decisions, software architects need support for exploring architectural knowledge collections, e.g., for finding related items. While semantic-based architectural knowledge management tools are limited to supporting lookup-based tasks through faceted search and fall short of enabling exploration, semantic-based exploratory search systems primarily focus on web-scale knowledge graphs without having been adapted to enterprise-scale knowledge graphs (EKG). We investigate how and to what extent exploratory search can be supported on EKGs of architectural knowledge. We propose an approach for building exploratory search systems on EKGs and demonstrate its use within Siemens, which resulted in the STAR system used in practice by 200–300 software architects. We found that the EKG’s ontology allows making previously implicit organisational knowledge explicit and this knowledge informs the design of suitable relatedness metrics to support exploration. Yet, the performance of these metrics heavily depends on the characteristics of the EKG’s data. Therefore both statistical and user-based evaluations can be used to select the right metric before system implementation.

Keywords

Software engineering Software architectural knowledge Enterprise knowledge graph Exploratory search 

References

  1. 1.
    Ameller, D., Galster, M., Avgeriou, P., Franch, X.: A survey on quality attributes in service-based systems. Softw. Q. J. 24(2), 271–299 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bagheri, H., Garcia, J., Sadeghi, A., Malek, S., Medvidovic, N.: Software architectural principles in contemporary mobile software: from conception to practice. J. Syst. Softw. 119, 31–44 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Capilla, R., Jansen, A., Tang, A., Avgeriou, P., Ali, M.: 10 years of software architecture knowledge management : practice and future. J. Syst. Softw. 116, 191–205 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Boer, R.C., Lago, P., Telea, A., van Vliet, H.: Ontology-driven visualization of architectural design decisions. In: Joint Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture and European Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA/ECSA), pp. 51–60 (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Graaf, K.A., Liang, P., Tang, A., van Vliet, H.: How organisation of architecture documentation affects architectural knowledge retrieval. Sci. Comput. Program. 121, 75–99 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Graaf, K.A., Tang, A., Liang, P., Khalili, A.: Querying software architecture knowledge as linked open data. In: IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ICSAW), pp. 272–277 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Graaf, K.A., Tang, A., Liang, P., van Vliet, H.: Ontology-based software architecture documentation. In: Proceedings of Joint Working Conference on Software Architecture and European Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA/ECSA), pp. 121–130 (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dimitrova, V., Lau, L., Thakker, D., Yang-Turner, F., Despotakis, D.: Exploring exploratory search: a user study with linked semantic data. In: International Workshop on Intelligent Exploration of Semantic Data, pp. 1–8 (2013)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ding, W., Liang, P., Tang, A., van Vliet, H.: Knowledge-based approaches in software documentation: a systematic literature review. Inf. Softw. Technol. 56(6), 545–567 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Happel, H.-J., Seedorf, S., Schader, M.: Ontology-enabled documentation of service-oriented architectures with ontobrowse semantic Wiki. In: PRIMIUM - Process Innovation for Enterprise Software, pp. 61–80 (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoffman, R.R.: How can expertise be defined? Implications of research from cognitive psychology. In: Williams, R., Faulkner, W., Fleck, J. (eds.) Exploring Expertise, pp. 81–100. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (1998).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-13693-3_4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    ISO/IEC/IEEE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010:2010 systems and software engineering architecture description. Technical report. ISO/IEC/IEEE (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jansen, A., Netherlands, T., Bosch, J.: Software architecture as a set of architectural design decisions. In: Joint Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA), pp. 109–120 (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kruchten, P., Lago, P., van Vliet, H.: Building up and reasoning about architectural knowledge. In: Hofmeister, C., Crnkovic, I., Reussner, R. (eds.) QoSA 2006. LNCS, vol. 4214, pp. 43–58. Springer, Heidelberg (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1007/11921998_8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    López, C., Codocedo, V., Astudillo, H., Cysneiros, L.M.: Bridging the gap between software architecture rationale formalisms and actual architecture documents: an ontology-driven approach. Sci. Comput. Program. 77(1), 66–80 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marie, N., Gandon, F.: Survey of linked data based exploration systems. In: International Conference on Intelligent Exploration of Semantic Data, pp. 66–77 (2014)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marie, N., Gandon, F., Ribière, M., Rodio, F.: Discovery hub: on-the-fly linked data exploratory search. In: International Conference on Semantic Systems, pp. 17–24 (2013)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Palagi, E., Gandon, F., Giboin, A., Troncy, R.: A survey of definitions and models of exploratory search. In: Workshop on Exploratory Search and Interactive Data Analytics, pp. 3–8. ACM, New York (2017)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pan, J.Z., Vetere, G., Gomez-Perez, J.M., Wu, H.: Exploiting Linked Data and Knowledge Graphs in Large Organisations, 1st edn. Springer, Heidelberg (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45654-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shanteau, J.: The psychology of experts: an alternative view. In: Wright, G., Bolger, F. (eds.) Expertise and Decision Support, pp. 11–23. Springer, Boston (1992).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-585-34290-0_2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Soliman, M., Galster, M., Riebisch, M.: Developing an ontology for architecture knowledge from developer communities. In: IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA), pp. 89–92 (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tang, A., Liang, P., van Vliet, H.: Software architecture documentation: the road ahead. In: Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture, pp. 252–255 (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    White, R.W., Roth, R.A.: Exploratory Search: Beyond the Query Response Paradigm. Morgan & Claypool, San Rafael (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Technical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Siemens AG ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations