Smart Papers: Dynamic Publications on the Blockchain

  • Michał R. HoffmanEmail author
  • Luis-Daniel Ibáñez
  • Huw Fryer
  • Elena Simperl
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10843)


Distributed Ledgers (DLs), also known as blockchains, provide decentralised, tamper-free registries of transactions among partners that distrust each other. For the scientific community, DLs have been proposed to decentralise and make more transparent each step of the scientific workflow. For the particular case of dissemination and peer-reviewing, DLs can provide the cornerstone to realise open decentralised publishing systems where social interactions between peers are tamper-free, enabling trustworthy computation of bibliometrics. In this paper, we propose the use of DL-backed smart contracts to track a subset of social interactions for scholarly publications in a decentralised and reliable way, yielding Smart Papers. We show how our Smart Papers approach complements current models for decentralised publishing, and analyse cost implications.


Smart contracts Blockchain Dynamic publications Ethereum Open decentralised publishing Collaborative processes Trust 


  1. 1.
    ETH Gas Station, accessed January 2018.
  2. 2.
    Alharby, M., van Moorsel, A.: Blockchain-based smart contracts: a systematic mapping study. CoRR abs/1710.06372 (2017).
  3. 3.
    Bartling, S.: Blockchain for open science and knowledge creation. Technical report, Blockchain for Science.
  4. 4.
    Benet, J.: IPFS-content addressed, versioned, P2P file system. arXiv preprint arXiv:1407.3561 (2014)
  5. 5.
    Capadisli, S., Guy, A., Lange, C., Auer, S., Sambra, A., Berners-Lee, T.: Linked data notifications: a resource-centric communication protocol. In: Blomqvist, E., Maynard, D., Gangemi, A., Hoekstra, R., Hitzler, P., Hartig, O. (eds.) ESWC 2017. LNCS, vol. 10249, pp. 537–553. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar
  6. 6.
    Capadisli, S., Guy, A., Verborgh, R., Lange, C., Auer, S., Berners-Lee, T.: Decentralised authoring, annotations and notifications for a read-write web with dokieli. In: Cabot, J., De Virgilio, R., Torlone, R. (eds.) ICWE 2017. LNCS, vol. 10360, pp. 469–481. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Casati, F., Giunchiglia, F., Marchese, M.: Liquid publications: scientific publications meet the Web. Technical report 1313, University of Trento (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gangemi, A., Peroni, S., Shotton, D., Vitali, F.: The publishing workflow ontology (PWO). Semant. Web 8(5), 703–718 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Garcia-Castro, A., Labarga, A., Garcia, L., Giraldo, O., Montaña, C., Bateman, J.A.: Semantic web and social web heading towards living documents in the life sciences. Web Semant.: Sci. Serv. Agents World Wide Web 8(2–3), 155–162 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haak, L.L., Fenner, M., Paglione, L., Pentz, E., Ratner, H.: Orcid: a system to uniquely identify researchers. Learn. Publish. 25(4), 259–264 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heller, L., The, R., Bartling, S.: Dynamic publication formats and collaborative authoring. In: Bartling, S., Friesike, S. (eds.) Opening Science, pp. 191–211. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hürsch, W.L., Lopes, C.V.: Separation of concerns. NorthEastern University, Technical report (1995)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kuhn, T., Dumontier, M.: Making digital artifacts on the web verifiable and reliable. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 27(9), 2390–2400 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    López-Cózar, E.D., Robinson-Garcia, N., Torres-Salinas, D.: Manipulating Google scholar citations and Google scholar metrics: simple, easy and tempting. arXiv preprint arXiv:1212.0638 (2012)
  15. 15.
    Wattenhofer, R.: The Science of the Blockchain, 1st edn. Inverted Forest Publishing, Erscheinungsort nicht ermittelbar (2016). oCLC: 952079386Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wood, G.: Ethereum: a secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger. Ethereum Project Yellow Paper 151 (2014).

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations