Advertisement

The Impact of the CEFR on Teaching and Assessing Romanian as a Second/Foreign Language. Practice and Research

  • Ioana-Silvia Sonea
Chapter
Part of the Multilingual Education book series (MULT, volume 27)

Abstract

This chapter is divided into two main parts. In the first part, we discuss some of the main criticism that the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR) has received over the years, such as native speaker reference, relationship with Second Language Acquisition research or empirical validation of the CEFR levels and descriptors, as well as some suggestions for further development. In the second part of the chapter, we will describe the way the document has been used (or misused) in the Romanian National Educational System and the consequences that the approach adopted has had on the way languages are learned and taught in Romanian state schools. We will then assess the influence of the CEFR on learning, teaching and assessing Romanian, in areas such as curriculum development, designing teaching and testing material and teacher training. We will describe the process of adopting the framework and adapting it to three contexts: teaching Romanian as a foreign language in higher education, teaching Romanian as a second language to national minorities and teaching Romanian as a native language. We will finally show how the CEFR has been used in order to create appropriate instruments for building a coherent system in distinct context, with different purposes, but unified by the same basic principles.

Keywords

Common European Framework of Reference Teaching Assessment Levels Second language acquisition Language policies 

References

  1. Alderson, C. J. (2007). The CEFR and the need for more research. Modern Language Journal, 91, 660–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arieșan, A. (2017). The process of setting the time for A1-B2 RFL exams. In Studia UBB Philologia, LXII(2), 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burlacu, D., Platon, E., & Sonea, I. (2011). Procesul de predare-învățare a limbii române ca limbă nematernă (RLNM) la ciclul primar. RLNM: P1 - ciclul primar. Cluj-Napoca: Editura Casa Cărții de Știință.Google Scholar
  4. Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Council of Europe. (2003). Relating language examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment (CEF) [Preliminary pilot version of a proposed manual]. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
  6. Heyworth, F. (2006). The common European Framework. ELT Journal, 60(2), 181–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hulstijn, J. H. (2007). The shaky ground beneath the CEFR: Quantitative and qualitative dimensions of language proficiency. Modern Language Journal, 9, 663–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hulstijn, J. H. (2011). Language proficiency in native and nonnative speakers: An agenda for research and suggestions for second-language assessment. Language Assessment Quarterly, 8, 229–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hulstijn, J. H. (2013). The common European framework of reference for languages. A challenge for applied linguistics. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 165, 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Little, D. (2007). The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Perspectives on the making of supranational language education policy. Modern Language Journal, 91, 645–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Little, D. (2011). The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 44, 381–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Little, D. (2015). Learner identity, learner agency, and the assessment of language proficiency: Some reflections prompted by the Common European framework of reference for languages. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 35, 120–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lowie, W. M. (2012). The CEFR and the dynamics of second language learning: Trends and challenges. Language Learning in Higher Education. Journal of the European Confederation of Language Centres in Higher Education (CercleS), 2(1), 17–34.  https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2012-0002 Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martyniuk, W. (Ed.). (2010). Aligning tests with the CEFR: Reflections on using the Council of Europe’s draft manual. Studies in language testing 33. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Moldovan, V. (2012). Bibliografia românei ca limbă străină. In Lingua, anul III-IV / 2004–2005, 125–159.Google Scholar
  16. Müller-Hartmann, A., & Schocker-von Ditfurth, M. (2010). Introduction to English language teaching. Stuttgart: Klett Lerntraining.Google Scholar
  17. North, B. (2007a). The CEFR illustrative descriptor scales. Modern Language Journal, 91, 656–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. North, B. (2007b). The CEFR: Development, theoretical and practical issues. Babylonia, 1/07, 22–29.Google Scholar
  19. North, B., Ortega Calvo, A., & Sheehan, S. (2010). British Council–EAQUALS core inventory for general English. London: British Council/EAQUALS Retrieved from www.teachingenglish.org.uk. www.eaquals.org.Google Scholar
  20. North, B. (2014a). Putting the Common European Framework of Reference to good use. Language Teaching, 47(02), 228–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. North, B. (2014b). The CEFR in practice (English Profile Studies 4). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Pitzl, M.-L. (2015). Understanding and misunderstanding in the Common European framework of reference: What we can learn from research on BELF and intercultural communication. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 4(1), 91–124 Berlin/Munich/Boston: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  23. Platon, E., & Vîlcu, D. (Eds.). (2011). Procesul de evaluare a limbii române ca limbă nematernă (RLNM) la ciclul primar. RLNM: P4 - ciclul primar. Cluj-Napoca: Editura Casa Cărţii de Știinţă.Google Scholar
  24. Platon, E., Sonea, I., Vasiu, L., & Vîlcu, D. (2014). Descrierea minimală a limbii române. A1, A2, B1, B2. Cluj-Napoca: Editura Casa Cărții de Știință.Google Scholar
  25. Platon, E., Sonea, I., & Tărău, Ș. (Eds.). (2015). Evaluarea competențelor de comunicare scrisă în limba română - învățământul secundar. Cluj-Napoca: Editura Casa Cărții de Știință.Google Scholar
  26. Romanian Ministry of Education. (2017a). Information on the legislation, structure and the administration of the Baccalaureate examination. Anexa 2 la ordinul MECTS nr. 4799/31.08.2010, privind organizarea și desfășurarea examenului de bacalaureat. Retrieved from at http://subiecte2017.edu.ro/2017/bacalaureat/legislatie/
  27. Romanian Ministry of Education. (2017b). Test samples and methodology for final assessment of language competences, Baccalaureate, English language. Retrieved from http://subiecte2017.edu.ro/2017/bacalaureat/modeledesubiecte/certificarecompetente/
  28. Romanian Ministry of Education - information on the curriculum for foreign language in Romanian state schools at http://programe.ise.ro/
  29. The Babeş-Bolyai University Mission Statement. Retrieved from http://www.ubbcluj.ro/ro/despre/prezentare/misiune
  30. Todea, A. (2017). Developing an analysis grid for B1/ B2 reading tasks and items. In Studia UBB Philologia, LXII(2), 167–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vasiu, L. (2017). Considerations on conversational competence. The case of Romanian as a foreign language (RFL), level A1. Studia UBB Philologia, LXII(2), 153–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vîlcu, D. (2017). The calculation of cut off score in Romanian as a foreign language pretest and examinations. Studia UBB Philologia, LXII, 113–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wisniewski, K. (2017). Empirical learner language and the levels of the Common European Framework of Reference. Language Learning, 67(S1), 232–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioana-Silvia Sonea
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Romanian Language, Culture and Civilisation, Faculty of LettersBabeș-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania

Personalised recommendations