Histology of the Normal Breast, Normal Changes, and Abnormalities of Breast Development

  • Simona Stolnicu


The breast, a modified sweat gland and target for different hormones, lies on the anterior chest wall over the pectoralis major muscle and has the specialized function of feeding the newborn infant. The breast displays various morphologic alteration throughout the reproductive life cycle (menarche, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause, in addition to maternal hormonal effects in utero). By understanding its normal morphology, normal changes, and immunohistochemical profile, breast pathologists are better able to identify and diagnose breast lesions, also by using ancillary examinations. A variety of abnormalities can occur during the development of the breast, most of which can be easily corrected with the help of cosmetic surgery.


Histology Breast Immunohistochemical stains 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simona Stolnicu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of Medicine and PharmacyTîrgu MureșRomania

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