Four Humanists

  • Kevin Ingram


In this chapter, Ingram examines the biographies and works of a group of four humanist friends in Counter-Reformation Spain, contesting the generally accepted view that they were apologists for Counter-Reformation Catholic orthodoxy. In contrast, Ingram argues that they are converso non-conformists who discreetly advance a program of religious concordance and toleration, promoting the importance of early Jewish settlement in Iberia for the development of a unique Iberian culture.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin Ingram
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of HumanitiesSaint Louis UniversityMadridSpain

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