Agroecology pp 117-133 | Cite as


  • Paul Wojtkowski

Chapter Commentary

Up to this point, this text has focused on yields, revenue, costs, and ultimately profit. There are other economic forces at work. Certainty in crop yields, especially in climatically trying years, can be more important than revenue and profit. This is probably true for the vast majority of the world farmers.

Risk, or the mitigation thereof, brings forth another aspect of agroecology. Going beyond the regular threat counters, there are solutions and design variations that help guarantee base yields when the weather is far from ideal.


  1. Altieri, M. A., Nicholls, C. I., Henao, A., & Lana, M. A. (2015). Agroecology and the design of climate change-resilient farming systems. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 35(3), 869–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cohen, A. S., VanWey, L. K., Spera, S. A., & Mustard, J. F. (2016). Cropping frequency and area response to climate variability can exceed yield response. Nature Climate Change. Published online 7 March.Google Scholar
  3. Das, A. J., Stephenson, N. L., & Davis, R. P. (2016). Why trees die? Characterizing the driver of background tree mortality. Ecology, 97(10), 2616–2622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Glover, J. (1957). The relationship between total seasonal rainfall and yield of maize in the Kenya highlands. Journal of Agricultural Science, 49, 285–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Johns, N. D. (1999). Conservation in Brazil’s chocolate forests: The unlikely persistence of traditional cocoa agroecosystems. Environmental Management, 23(1), 32–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Karim, M. R., Ishikawa, M., Ikeda, M., & Islam, M. T. (2012). Climate change model predicts 33% rice yield decrease in 2100 in Bangladesh. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 32(4), 821–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Wojtkowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidad de ConcepciónPittsfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations