Agroecology pp 155-171 | Cite as

Advanced Economics

  • Paul Wojtkowski

Chapter Commentary

This chapter starts by delving into opportunity cost and economic orientation. Discussion is meant to provide a clearer, more detailed picture on the theory behind orientation. This includes and a look at some deviations from the norm.

Most agriculture is monetary stated. This is not always the case. In subsistence agroecology, there are on-farm trade-offs between money, land, and labor. Cash-poor farmers must often substitute labor and/or land when nonfarm expenses place a high demand on income. This moves farmers along set paths. The accompanying analysis is part of a greater understanding.

Finally, there are both revenue and cost versions of agroecology. The revenue version seeks high yields, mostly through multi-output agrosystems. These place little reliance on eco-services. Although outside what is advocated in this book, input-based, revenue-oriented agroecology deserves a mention.


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  2. Kihara, K., Nziguheba, G., Zingore, S., et al. (2016). Understanding variability in crop response to fertilizer and amendments in sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 229, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Wojtkowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidad de ConcepciónPittsfieldUSA

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