This chapter starts by delving into opportunity cost and economic orientation. Discussion is meant to provide a clearer, more detailed picture on the theory behind orientation. This includes and a look at some deviations from the norm.
Most agriculture is monetary stated. This is not always the case. In subsistence agroecology, there are on-farm trade-offs between money, land, and labor. Cash-poor farmers must often substitute labor and/or land when nonfarm expenses place a high demand on income. This moves farmers along set paths. The accompanying analysis is part of a greater understanding.
Finally, there are both revenue and cost versions of agroecology. The revenue version seeks high yields, mostly through multi-output agrosystems. These place little reliance on eco-services. Although outside what is advocated in this book, input-based, revenue-oriented agroecology deserves a mention.