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Chronic Kidney Disease and Hypertension

  • Pedro A. JoseEmail author
  • Van Anthony M. Villar
Chapter

Abstract

Hypertension can cause kidney disease and kidney disease can cause hypertension. However, hypertension may cause progressive kidney disease only in genetically susceptible individuals. The second most common cause of end-stage renal disease continues to be hypertension. Increased blood pressure participates in the pathogenesis of renal disease and the kidney is crucial in the long-term regulation of blood pressure. The development of hypertension and kidney damage is well-documented in many well-characterized animal models of hypertension. Attenuating the development and severity of hypertension prevents the development of end-organ damage. Hypertensive nephrosclerosis is a non-specific clinical diagnosis given to patients with chronic kidney disease, low-level proteinuria, and elevated blood pressure. Arterionephrosclerosis has been suggested as the clinical diagnosis of patients with chronic kidney disease and elevated blood pressure in the absence of diabetes or known genetic cause. In patients with a known genetic cause, the term glomerulosclerosis, preceded by the genetic cause, should used, for instance, APOL1-associated glomerulosclerosis, GSTM1-associated glomerulosclerosis. Increased sodium intake, inflammation, and oxidative stress are interrelated and important in the pathogenesis of hypertension and kidney disease. It is likely that hypertension and kidney disease may share the same causes.

Keywords

Chronic kidney disease Hypertension Albuminuria Glomerular filtration rate Arterionephrosclerosis Glomerulosclerosis Inflammation Oxidative stress Sodium chloride intake 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work is supported, in part, by grants from the National Institutes of Health: HL023081, HL092196, HL068686, HL068686, and DK039308.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Renal Diseases and HypertensionThe George Washington University School of Medicine and Health SciencesWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine and Department of Pharmacology and PhysiologyThe George Washington University School of Medicine and Health SciencesWashington, DCUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineThe George Washington University School of Medicine and Health SciencesWashington, DCUSA

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