The VA Co-operative Studies; The First RCTs in Cardiovascular Disease – A Tribute to Edward D. Freis

  • Vasilios PapademetriouEmail author
  • Michael Doumas
  • Costas Tsioufis
  • Kyriakos Dimitriadis
  • Charles Faselis


The relationship between elevated blood pressure and premature death was first demonstrated from data collected by insurance companies in the 1920s [1], and the association continued to be strengthened by data from the same source accumulated over the next 3 decades. The beneficial effects of blood pressure reduction however, remained controversial till the mid 1950s because of the luck of effective therapies and the fear of harming vital organs and actually increasing cardiovascular events with lower pressures [2]. Thus therapeutic nihilism prevailed for a long time.


VA-Co-operative studies Randomized clinical trials Diastolic blood pressure Antihypertensive treatment Events Multi-centric studies Sustained hypertension Adherence 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasilios Papademetriou
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Doumas
    • 2
  • Costas Tsioufis
    • 3
    • 4
  • Kyriakos Dimitriadis
    • 4
  • Charles Faselis
    • 2
  1. 1.Georgetown University and VA Medical CenterWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.VA Medical Center and George Washington UniversityWashington, DCUSA
  3. 3.VA Medical Center and Georgetown UniversityWashington, DCUSA
  4. 4.1st Academic Department of CardiologyAthensGreece

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