Advertisement

Algal Microbial Fuel Cells—Nature’s Perpetual Energy Resource

  • Lavanyasri Rathinavel
  • Deepika Jothinathan
  • Venkataraman Sivasankar
  • Paul Agastian
  • Prabhakaran Mylsamy
Chapter

Abstract

Environmental pollution and global warming are major threats to life on Earth. These drastic changes are caused by carbon dioxide emission, which has become a very serious problem worldwide. For the generation of useful sustainable and renewable energy in an efficient manner, the production of electricity using solar energy trapped by algae in combination with microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is a very attractive option. The use of different kinds of algae has become a recent research trend, especially because algae have great capacity to utilize carbon dioxide via photosynthesis, with the potential to convert it into a biomass. Integrating algae into MFCs has given rise to a new MFC model, that of photosynthetic MFCs. Algal MFCs play an extensive role in the treatment of organic contaminants that can be converted to bioelectricity and they also efficiently remove various by-products. This chapter provides- detailed descriptions of the basic experimental setup of MFCs, and the electrode materials used for anodes, cathodes, and membranes. Microbial fuel cells employing different types of algae as substrates under various conditions are described in detail. A brief description of special MFC designs that are integrated with PBR is given. Details of MFC models with algae-assisted anodes and cathodes are also supplied. The multiple bioreactor constructions that are employed to yield algal biomasses are discussed, along with the technologies that will have to be developed. Future challenges and perspectives are highlighted, and we describe research work that can be applied for the commercialization of algal MFCs.

Keywords

Algal biomass Algal MFC Anode Cathode 

References

  1. Aelterman P, Rabaey K, Clauwaert P, Verstraete W (2006) Microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment. Water Sci Technol 54(8):9–15Google Scholar
  2. Badalamenti JP, Torres CI, Krajmalnik-Brown R (2013) Light-responsive current generation by phototrophically enriched anode biofilms dominated b green sulfur bacteria. Biotechnol Bioeng 110:1020–1027Google Scholar
  3. Badalamenti JP, Torres CI, Krajmalnik-Brown R (2014) Coupling dark metabolism to electricity generation using photosynthetic co cultures. Biotechnol Bioeng 111:223–231Google Scholar
  4. Barua PK, Deka D (2010) Electricity generation from biowaste based microbial fuel cells. Int J Energy Inform Commun 1:1Google Scholar
  5. Bombelli P et al (2011) Quantitative analysis of the factors limiting solar power transduction by Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in biological photovoltaic devices. Energy Environ Sci 2011(4):4690–4698Google Scholar
  6. Cai P-J, Xiao X, He Y-R, Li W-W, Zang G-L, Sheng G-P et al (2013) Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by cyanobacteria act as an electron acceptor in the biocathode of a bio-electrochemical system. Biosens Bioelectron 39:306–310Google Scholar
  7. Cao X, Huang X, Boon N, Liang P, Fan M (2008) Electricity generation by an enriched phototrophic consortium in a microbial fuel cell. Electrochem Commun 10:1392–1395Google Scholar
  8. Cao X, Huang X, Liang P, Boon N, Fan M, Zhanga L (2009) A completely anoxic microbial fuel cell using a photo-biocathode for cathodic carbon dioxide reduction. Energy Environ Sci 2:498–501Google Scholar
  9. Chandra R, Venkata Subhash G, Venkata Mohan S (2012) Mixotrophic operation of photo-bio electro catalytic fuel cell under an oxygenic microenvironment enhances the light dependent bioelectrogenic activity. Bioresour Technol 109:46–56Google Scholar
  10. Cheng S, Logan BE (2007) Ammonia treatment of carbon cloth anodes to enhance power generation of microbial fuel cells. Electrochem Commun 9(3):492–496Google Scholar
  11. Cheng L, Zhang L, Chen H, Gao C (2006a) Carbon dioxide removal from air by microalgae cultured in a membrane-photo bioreactor. Sep Purif Technol 50:324–329Google Scholar
  12. Cheng S, Liu H, Logan BE (2006b) Increased performance of single-chamber microbial fuel cells using an improved cathode structure. Electrochem Commun 8(3):489–494Google Scholar
  13. Cho YK, Donohue TJ, Tejedor I, Anderson MA, McMahon KD, Noguera DR (2008) Development of a solar-powered microbial fuel cell. J Appl Microbiol 104:640–650Google Scholar
  14. Christi Y (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 25:294–306Google Scholar
  15. Correa-Duarte MA, Wagner N, Rojas-Chapana J, Morsczeck C, Thie M, Giersig M (2004) Fabrication and biocompatibility of carbon nanotube-based 3D networks as scaffolds for cell seeding and growth. Nano Lett 4(11):2233Google Scholar
  16. Cui Y, Rashid N, Hu N, Rehman MSU, Han J-I (2014) Electricity generation and microalgae cultivation in microbial fuel cell using microalgae-enriched anode and bio-cathode. Energy Convers Manag 79:674–680Google Scholar
  17. De Schamphelaire L, Rabaey K, Boeckx P, Boon N, Verstraete W (2008) Outlook for benefits of sediment microbial fuel cells with two bio-electrodes. Microb Biotechnol 1:446–462Google Scholar
  18. Del Campo AG, Cañizares P, Rodrigo MA, Fernández FJ, Lobato J (2013) Microbial fuel cell with an algae-assisted cathode: a preliminary assessment. J Power Sources 242:638–645Google Scholar
  19. El Mekawy A, Hegab HM, Dominguez-Benetton X, Pant D (2013) Internal resistance of microfluidic microbial fuel cell: challenges and potential opportunities. Bioresour Technol 142:672–682Google Scholar
  20. El Mekawy A, Hegab HM, Vanbroekhoven K, Pant D (2014) Techno productive potential of photosynthetic microbial fuel cells through different configurations. Renew Sust Energ Rev 39 (2014) 617–627Google Scholar
  21. Freguia S, Rabaey K, Yuan Z, Keller J (2007) Electron and carbon balances in microbial fuel cells reveal temporary bacterial storage behavior during electricity generation. Environ Sci Technol 41:2915–2921Google Scholar
  22. Fu C, Su C, Hung T, Hsieh C, Suryani D, Wu W (2009) Effects of biomass weight and light intensity on the performance of photosynthetic microbial fuel cells with Spirulina platensis. Bioresour Technol 100:4183–4186Google Scholar
  23. Fu C, Hung T, Wu W, Wen T, Su C (2010) Current and voltage responses in instant photosynthetic microbial cells with Spirulina platensis. Biochem Eng J 52:175–180Google Scholar
  24. Gadhamshetty V, Belanger D, Gardiner C-J, Cummings A, Hynes A (2013) Evaluation of Laminaria-based microbial fuel cells (LbMs) for electricity production. Bioresour Technol 127:378–385Google Scholar
  25. Gajda I, Greenman J, Melhuish C, Ieropoulos I (2013) Photosynthetic cathodes for microbial fuel cells. Int J Hydrog Energy 38:11559–11564Google Scholar
  26. Gajda I, Greenman J, Melhuish C, Ieropoulos I (2015) Self-sustainable electricity production from algae grown in a microbial fuel cell system Biomass Bioenergy 82:87–93Google Scholar
  27. Ge Z, Zhang F, Grimaud J, Hurst J, He Z (2013) Long-term investigation of microbial fuel cells treating primary sludge or digested sludge. Bioresour Technol 136:509–514Google Scholar
  28. Gil GC, Chang IS, Kim BH, Kim M, Jang JK, Park HS, Kim HJ (2003) Operational parameters affecting the performance of a mediator-less microbial fuel cell. Biosens Bioelectron 18:327–334Google Scholar
  29. Gouveia L, Neves C, Sebastião D, Nobre BP, Matos CT (2014) Effect of light on the production of bioelectricity and added-value micro algae biomass in a photo- synthetic alga microbial fuel cell. Bioresour Technol 154:171–177Google Scholar
  30. Gruning A, Beecroft NJ, Avignone-Rossa C (2014) Metabolic composition of anode community predicts electrical power in microbial fuel cells. Retrieved 1 January 2015 from: https://archive.org/details/biorxiv-10.1101-002337
  31. Hai-ming, Jiang (2016) Combination of microbial fuel cells with microalgae cultivation for bioelectricity generation and domestic wastewater treatment. Environ Eng Sci 34:489–495Google Scholar
  32. He D, Bultel Y, Magnin J-P, Roux C, Willison JC (2005a) Hydrogen photosynthesis by Rhodobacter capsulatus and its coupling to a PEM fuel cell. J Power Sources 141:19–23Google Scholar
  33. He Z, Minteer SD, Angenent LT (2005b) Electricity generation from artificial wastewater using an up flow microbial fuel cell. Environ Sci Technol 39:5262–5267Google Scholar
  34. He Z, Kan J, Mansfeld F, Angenent LT, Nealson KH (2009) Self-sustained phototrophic microbial fuel cells based on the synergistic cooperation between photosynthetic microorganismsand heterotrophic bacteria. Environ Sci Technol 43(5):1648–1654Google Scholar
  35. He H, Zhou M, Yang J, Hu Y, Zhao Y (2013a) Simultaneous waste water treatment, electricity generation and biomass production by an immobilized photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 37:873–880Google Scholar
  36. He H, Zhou M, Yang J, Youshuang H, Zhao Y (2013b) Simultaneous wastewater treatment, electricity generation and biomass production by an immobilized photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 37:873–880 00449-013-1058-4Google Scholar
  37. He Z et al (2014) Applications and perspectives of phototrophic microorganisms for electricity generation from organic compounds in microbial fuel cells. Renew Sust Energ Rev 37:550–559Google Scholar
  38. Heister E, Brunner EW, Dieckmann GR, Jurewicz I, Dalton AB (2013) Are carbon nanotubes a natural solution? Applications in biology and medicine. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5(6):1870Google Scholar
  39. Hur J, Lee B-M, Choi K-S, Min B (2014) Tracking the spectroscopic and chromatographic changes of algal derived organic matter in a microbial fuel cell. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:2230–2239Google Scholar
  40. Ieropoulos I, Greenman J, Melhuish C (2008) Microbial fuel cells based on carbon veil electrodes: stack configuration and scalability. Int J Energy Res 32(13):1228–1240Google Scholar
  41. Iijima S (1991) Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature 354:6348–6356Google Scholar
  42. Inglesby AE, Fisher AC (2012) Enhanced methane yields from an aerobic digestion of Arthrospira maxima biomass in an advanced flow-through reactor with an integrated re circulation loop microbial fuel cell. Energy Environ Sci 5:7996–8006Google Scholar
  43. Inglesby AE, Beatty DA, Fisher AC (2012) Rhodopseudomonas palustris purple bacteria fed Arthrospira maxima cyanobacteria: demonstration of application in microbial fuel cells. RSC Adv 2:4829–4838Google Scholar
  44. Jeon HJ, Seo K-w, Lee SH, Yang Y-H, Kumaran RS, Kim S, Hong SW, Choi YS, Kim HJ (2012) Production of algal biomass (Chlorella vulgaris) using sediment microbial fuel cells. Bioresour Technol 109:308–311Google Scholar
  45. Jiang H, Luo S, Shi X, Dai M, Guo R (2013) A system combining microbial fuel cell with photo bioreactor for continuous domestic waste water treatment and bioelectricity generation. J Cent South Univ 20:488–494Google Scholar
  46. Juang DF, Lee CH, Hsueh SC (2012) Comparison of electrogenic capabilities of microbial fuel cell with different light power on algae grown cathode. Bioresour Technol 123:23–29Google Scholar
  47. Kakarla R, Min B (2014) Evaluation of microbial fuel cell operation using algae as an oxygen supplier: carbon paper cathode vs. carbon brush cathode. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-014-1223-4 Google Scholar
  48. Karube I, Takeuchi T, Barnes DJ (1992) Modern biochemical engineering, vol 46. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  49. Kokabian B, Gude VG (2013) Photosynthetic microbial desalination cells (PMDCs) for clean energy, water and biomass production. Environ Sci Processes Impact 15:2178–2185Google Scholar
  50. Kondaveeti S, Choi KS, Kakarla R, Min B (2014) Microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus as renewable biomass feedstock for electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Front Environ Sci Eng. 8:784–791.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-013-0590-4 Google Scholar
  51. Kruzic AP, Kreissl JF (2009) Natural treatment and on site systems. Water Environ Res 81:1346–1360Google Scholar
  52. Kymakis E, Amaratunga GAJ (2002) Single wall carbon nanotube conjugated polymer photovoltaic devices. Appl Phys Lett 80(1):112Google Scholar
  53. Lakaniemi A-M, Tuovinen OH, Puhakka JA (2012) Production of electricity and butanol from microalgal biomass in microbial fuel cells. BioEnerg Res 5:481–491Google Scholar
  54. Lan JC-W, Raman K, Huang C-M, Chang C-M (2013) The impact of mono chromatic blue and red LED light upon performance of photo microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii transformation F5 as biocatalyst. Biochem Eng J 78:39–43Google Scholar
  55. Lee Y-K (2004) Algal nutrition heterotrophic carbon nutrition. In: Richmond A (ed) Handb microalgal cult biotechnol appl phycol. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, p 116Google Scholar
  56. Li W-W, Han-Qing Y, He Z (2014) Towards sustainable wastewater treatment by using microbial fuel cells-centered technologies. Energy Environ Sci 7:911Google Scholar
  57. Li Xiao EB, Young JA, Berges ZH (2012) Integrated photo-bioelectrochemical system for contaminants removal and bioenergy production. Environ Sci Technol 46(20):11459–11466Google Scholar
  58. Lin C-C, Wei C-H, Chen C-I, Shieh C-J, Liu Y-C (2013) Characteristics of the photosynthesis microbial fuel cell with a Spirulina platensis biofilm. Bioresour Technol 135:640–643Google Scholar
  59. Liu T, Rao L, Yuan Y, Zhuang L (2015) Bioelectricity generation in a microbial fuel cell with a self-sustainable photo cathode. Sci World J 2015:1–8Google Scholar
  60. Lobato J, del Campo AG, Fernández FJ, Cañizares P, Rodrigo MA (2013) Lagooning microbial fuel cells: a first approach by coupling electricity-producing micro-organisms and algae. Appl Energy 110:220–226Google Scholar
  61. Logan BE (2010) Scaling up microbial fuel cells and other bioelectrochemical systems. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85(6):1665Google Scholar
  62. Logan BE, Regan JM (2006) Electricity-producing bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells. Trends Microbiol 14:512–518Google Scholar
  63. Logan BE, Hamelers B, Rozendal R, Schroder U, Keller J, Freguia S, Aelter man P, Verstraete W, Rabaey K (2006) Microbial fuel cells: methodology and technology. Environ Sci Technol 40(7):5181–5192Google Scholar
  64. Luimstra VM et al (2013) A cost-effective microbial fuel cell to detect and select for photosynthetic electrogenic activity in algae and cyanobacteria. J Appl Phycol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-013-0051-2 Google Scholar
  65. Lyautey E, Cournet A, Morin S, Bouletreau S, Etcheverry L, Charcosset JY (2011) Electro activity of phototrophic river biofilms and constitutive cultivable bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:5394–5401Google Scholar
  66. Malik S, Drott E, Grisdela P, Lee J, Lee C, Lowy DA et al (2009) A self-assembling self-repairing microbial photo electro chemical solar cell. Energy Environ Sci 2:292–298Google Scholar
  67. McGowan JG, Connors S (2000) WINDPOWER: a turn of the century review. Annu Rev Energy Environ 25:147–197Google Scholar
  68. Mitra P, Hill GA (2011) Continuous microbial fuel cell using a photoautotrophic cathode and a fermentative anode. Can J Chem Eng 90:1006–1010Google Scholar
  69. Mohan SV, Devi MP, Mohanakrishna G, Amarnath N, Babu ML, Sarma PN (2011) Potential of mixed microalgae to harness biodiesel from ecological water-bodies with simultaneous treatment. Bioresour Technol 102:1109–1117Google Scholar
  70. Morishima K, Yoshida M, Furuya A, Moriuchi T, Ota M, Furukawa Y (2007) Improving the performance of a direct photosynthetic/metabolic bio-fuel cell (DPBFC) using gene manipulated bacteria. J Micromech Microeng 17:S274–S279Google Scholar
  71. Mustakeem M et al (2015) Electrode materials for microbial fuel cells: nanomaterial approach. Mater Renew Sustain Energy 4:22Google Scholar
  72. Natarajan D, Van Nguyen T (2004) Effect of electrode configuration and electronic conductivity on current density distribution measurements in PEM fuel cells. J Power Sources 135(1):95Google Scholar
  73. Nishio K, Hashimoto K, Watanabe K (2013) Light/electricity conversion by defined co cultures of Chlamydomonas and Geobacter. J Biosci Bioeng 115:412–417Google Scholar
  74. Oh S, Min B, Logan BE (2004) Cathode performances a factor in electricity generation in microbial fuel cells. Environ SciTechnol 38:4900–4904Google Scholar
  75. Olguín EJ (2012) Dual purpose microalgae bacteria based systems that treat waste-water and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a bio refinery. Biotechnol Adv 30:1031–1046Google Scholar
  76. Park DH, Zeikus JG (2003) Improved fuel cell and electrode designs for producing electricity from microbial degradation. Biotechnol Bioeng 81:348–355Google Scholar
  77. Park DH, Zeikus JG (2009) Utilization of electrically reduced neutral red by Actinobacillus succinogenes: physiological function of neutral red in membrane-driven fumarate reduction and energy conservation. J Bacteriol 181:2403–2410Google Scholar
  78. Pisciotta JM, Zou Y, Baskakov IV (2011) Role of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain in electrogenic activity of cyanobacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91:377–385Google Scholar
  79. Powell EE, Mapiour ML, Evitts RW, Hill GA (2009) Growth kinetics of Chlorella vulgaris and its use as a cathodic half-cell. Bioresour Technol 100:269–274Google Scholar
  80. Powell EE, Mapiour ML, Evitts RW, Hill GA (2013) For multiple functionalities in microbial fuel cells. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 36:1913–1921Google Scholar
  81. Qian F, Wang G, Li Y (2010) Solar-Driven microbial photoelectrochemical cells with a nanowire photocathode. Nano Lett 10(11):4686-4691Google Scholar
  82. Rabaey K, Boon N, Hofte M, Verstraete W (2005a) Microbial phenazine production enhances electron transfer in biofuel cells. Environ Sci Technol 39:3401–3408Google Scholar
  83. Rabaey K, Clauwaert P, Aelterman P, Verstraete W (2005b) Tubular microbial fuel cells for efficient electricity generation. Environ Sci Technol 39:8077–8082Google Scholar
  84. Raman K, Lan JC-W (2012) Performance and kinetic study of photo microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) with different electrode distances. Appl Energy 100:100–105Google Scholar
  85. Ramanathan G, Birthous RS, Abirami D, Highcourt D (2011) Efficacy of marine microalgae as exoelectrogen in microbial fuel cell system for bioelectricity generation. World J Fish Marine Sci 3(1):79–87Google Scholar
  86. Rashid N et al (2013) Enhanced electricity generation by using algae biomass and activated sludge in microbial fuel cell. Sci Total Environ 456–457:91–94Google Scholar
  87. Reimers CE, Tender LM, Fertig S, Wang W (2001) Harvesting energy from the marine sediment-water interface. Environ Sci Technol 35:192–195Google Scholar
  88. Reimers CE, Girguis P, Stecher HA, Tender LM, Ryckelynck N, Whaling P (2006) Microbial fuel cell energy from an ocean cold seep. Geobiology 4:123–136Google Scholar
  89. Rismani-Yazdi H, Carver SM, Christy AD, Tuovinen OH (2008) Cathodic limitations in microbial fuel cells: an overview. J Power Sources 180(2):683Google Scholar
  90. Rodrigo MA, Cañizares P, García H, Linares JJ, Lobato J (2009) Study of the acclimation stage and of the effect of the biodegradability on the performance of a microbial fuel cell. Bioresour Technol 100:4704–4710Google Scholar
  91. Rosenbaum M, Schroder U, Scholz F (2005a) In situ electro oxidation of photobiological hydrogen in a photo bioelectro chemical fuel cell based on Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Environ Sci Technol 39:6328–6333Google Scholar
  92. Rosenbaum M, Schroder U, Scholz F (2005b) Utilizing the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for microbial electricity generation: a living solar cell. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 68:753–756Google Scholar
  93. Rozendal RA, Hamelers HVM, Buisman CJN (2006) Effects of membrane cation transport on pH and microbial fuel cell performance. Environ Sci Technol 40:5206–5211Google Scholar
  94. Satyanarayana KG, Mariano AB, Vargas JVC (2011) A reviews on microalgae, a versatile source for sustainable energy and materials. Int J Energy Res 35:291–311Google Scholar
  95. Schamphelaire D et al (2009) Revival of the biological sunlight to biogas energy conversion system. Biotechnol Bioeng 103:296–304Google Scholar
  96. Sevda S, Dominguez-Benetton X, Vanbroekhoven K, Sreekrishnan TR, Pant D (2013) Characterization and comparison of the performance of two different separator types in air–cathode microbial fuel cell treating synthetic waste-water. Chem Eng J 228:1–11Google Scholar
  97. Sharma T, Mohana Reddy AL, Chandra TS, Ramaprabhu S (2008) Development of carbon nanotubes and nanofluids based microbial fuel cell. Int J Hydrog Energy 33(22):6749Google Scholar
  98. Silvaggi J (2016) Integration of microbial fuel cell with in algal bioreactor. UWM Research FoundationGoogle Scholar
  99. Singhvi P, Chhabra M (2013) Simultaneous chromium removal and power generation using algal biomass in a dual chambered salt bridge microbial fuel cell. J Bioremed Biodeg 4:5Google Scholar
  100. Strik DPBTB, Terlouw H, HVM H, CJN B (2008) Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81:659–668Google Scholar
  101. Subhadra BG, Edwards M (2011) Co product market analysis and water footprint of simulated commercial algal biorefineries. Appl Energy 88:3515–3523Google Scholar
  102. Subhash GV, Chandra R, Mohan SV (2013) Micro algae mediated bio-electro catalytic fuel cell facilitates bioelectricity generation through oxygenic photo mixotrophic mechanism. Bioresour Technol 136:644–653Google Scholar
  103. Thorne R, Hu H, Schneider K, Bombelli P, Fisher A, Peter LM, Dent A, Cameron PJ (2011) Porous ceramic anode materials for photo-microbial fuel cells. J Mater Chem 21(44):18055–18060Google Scholar
  104. Velasquez-Orta SB, Curtis TP, Logan BE (2009) Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells. Biotechnol Bioeng 103(6):1068–1076Google Scholar
  105. Walter XA, Greenman J, Ieropoulos IA (2013) Oxygenic phototrophic biofilms for improved cathode performance in microbial fuel cells. Algal Res 2:183–187Google Scholar
  106. Walter XA, Greenman J, Taylor B, Ieropoulos IA (2015) Microbial fuel cells continuously fuelled by untreated fresh algal biomass. Algal Res 11:103–107Google Scholar
  107. Wang X, Feng Y, Liu J, Lee H, Li C, Li N et al (2010) Sequestration of CO2 discharged from anode by algal cathode in microbial carbon capture cells (MCCs). Biosens Bioelectron 25:2639–2643Google Scholar
  108. Wang HY, Bernarda A, Huang CY, Lee DJ, Chang JS (2011) Micro-sized microbial fuel cell: a mini-review. Bioresour Technol 102(1):235Google Scholar
  109. Wang H, Liu D, Lu L, Zhao Z, Xu Y, Cui F (2012) Degradation of algal organic matter using microbial fuel cells and its association with trihalomethane precursor removal. Bioresour Technol 116:80–85Google Scholar
  110. Ward AJ, Lewis DM, Green FB (2014) Anaerobic digestion of algae biomass: a review. Algal Res:2014  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2014.02.001 Google Scholar
  111. Wei J, Liang P, Huang X (2011) Recent progress in electrodes for microbial fuel cells. Bioresour Technol 102(20):9335Google Scholar
  112. Wu XY, Song TS, Zhu XJ, Wei P, Zhou CC (2013a) Construction and operation of microbial fuel cell with Chlorella vulgaris biocathode for electricity generation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 171:2082–2092Google Scholar
  113. Wu XY, Song TS, Zhu XJ, Wei P, Zhou CC (2013b) Construction and operation of microbial fuel cell with Chlorella vulgaris biocathode for electricity generation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12013-013-0476-8
  114. Winfield J et al (2012) Investigating a cascade of seven hydraulically connected microbial fuel cells. Bioresour Technol 110:245–250Google Scholar
  115. Winfield J et al (2013) Comparing terracotta and earthenware for multiple functionalities in microbial fuel cells. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 36:1913–1921Google Scholar
  116. Xiao Z (2012) Renew Sustain Energy Rev 37:550–559Google Scholar
  117. Xiao L, Young EB, Berges JA, He Z (2014) Integrated photo-bio electrochemical system for contaminants removal and bioenergy production. Environ Sci Technol 46:11459–11466Google Scholar
  118. Xing DF, Zuo Y, Cheng SA, Regan JM, Logan BE (2008) Electricity generation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris DX-1. Environ Sci Technol 42:4146–4151Google Scholar
  119. Xu C, Poon K, Choi MMF, Wang R (2015) Using live algae at the anode of a microbial fuel cell to generate electricity. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22(20):15621–15635Google Scholar
  120. Yadav AK, Panda P, Rout P, Behara S, Patra AK, Nayak SK, Bag BP (2009) Entrapment of algae for wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cell. XVIIth International Conference on Bioencapsulation, Groningen, Netherlands : 24–26,Google Scholar
  121. Yagishita T, Sawayama S, Tsukahara K, Ogi T (1997) Effects of intensity of incident light and concentrations of Synechococcus sp. and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone on the current output of photosynthetic electrochemical cell. Sol Energy 61(5):347–353Google Scholar
  122. Yang C, Hua Q, Shimizu K (2000) Energetics and carbon metabolism during growth of microalgal cells under photo autotrophic, mixotrophic and cyclic light-autotrophic/dark-heterotrophic conditions. Biochem Eng J 6:87–102Google Scholar
  123. You SJ, Zhao QL, Jiang JQ, Zhang JN (2006) Treatment of domestic wastewater with simultaneous electricity generation in microbial fuel cell under continuous operation. Chem Biochem Eng 20:407–412Google Scholar
  124. Yuan Y, Chen Q, Zhou S, Zhuang L, Hu P (2011) Bioelectricity generation and microcystins removal in a blue-green algae powered microbial fuel cell. J Hazard Mater 187(1–3):591–595Google Scholar
  125. Zhang F, Brastad KS, He Z (2011) Integrating forward osmosis into microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment, water extraction and bioelectricity generation. Environ Sci Technol 45(15):6690–6696Google Scholar
  126. Zhou M, Chi M, Luo J, He H, Jin T (2011) An overview of electrode materials in microbial fuel cells. J Power Sources 196(10):4427Google Scholar
  127. Zhou M, He H, Jin T, Wang H (2012) Power generation enhancement in novel microbial carbon capture cells with immobilized Chlorella vulgaris. J Power Sources 214:216–219Google Scholar
  128. Zou Y, Pisciotta J, Billmyre RB, Baskakov IV (2009) Photosynthetic microbial fuel cells with positive light response. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 104:939–946Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lavanyasri Rathinavel
    • 1
  • Deepika Jothinathan
    • 2
  • Venkataraman Sivasankar
    • 3
  • Paul Agastian
    • 4
  • Prabhakaran Mylsamy
    • 1
  1. 1.Post Graduate and Research Department of BotanyPachaiyappa’s CollegeChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Life SciencesCentral University of Tamil NaduThiruvarurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringNagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan
  4. 4.Department of Plant Biology and BiotechnologyLoyola College, NungambakkamChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations