Modeling Cities and Landscapes in 3D with CityGML

  • Ken Arroyo OhoriEmail author
  • Filip Biljecki
  • Kavisha Kumar
  • Hugo Ledoux
  • Jantien Stoter


CityGML is the most important international standard used to model cities and landscapes in 3D with extensive semantics. Compared to BIM standards such as IFC, CityGML models are usually less detailed but they cover a much greater spatial extent. They are also available in any of five standardized levels of detail. CityGML serves as an exchange format and as a data source for visualizations, either in dedicated applications or in a web browser. It can also be used for a wide range of spatial analyses, such as visibility studies and solar potential. Ongoing research will improve the integration of BIM standards with CityGML, making improved data exchange possible throughout the life-cycle of urban and environmental processes.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ken Arroyo Ohori
    • 1
    Email author
  • Filip Biljecki
    • 2
  • Kavisha Kumar
    • 1
  • Hugo Ledoux
    • 1
  • Jantien Stoter
    • 1
  1. 1.3D Geoinformation, Faculty of the Built Environment and ArchitectureDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Architecture, School of Design & EnvironmentNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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