How to Induce Arrhythmias with Adrenaline

  • Bogdan Chendran


Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that was first isolated in 1895 by the Polish physiologist Napoleon Cybulski. In normal individuals, endogenous plasma concentrations of adrenaline are less than 10 ng/L. This concentration increases tenfold during exercise and 50-fold during physiological or emotional stresses. After adrenaline is given intravenously, a significant increase in plasma concentrations appears within 1 min. In cardiac reanimation, a bolus of adrenaline can produce increased plasma concentrations as 10,000–100,000 ng/L.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bogdan Chendran
    • 1
  1. 1.Medicine Physique et Readaptation, Centre Hospitalier Bagnères de BigorreBagnères de BigorreFrance

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