Advertisement

Global Governance and Labour Migration in the GCC

  • Ray Jureidini
Chapter
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)

Abstract

This chapter will focus upon labour migration to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states, since the massive incomes to these countries, particularly from the oil price increase in the 1970s, resulted in one of the great migration stories of the twentieth century. Still significant, today labour migration to the GCC accounts for over 10 per cent of all migrants globally. The GCC states are also the site of a great deal of interactions with global organizations, international institutions, NGOs and individual activists around human rights and labour rights that have led to the beginnings of reforms and changes in practices. It will be argued that global governance of migration is an unachievable ambition, but one that does not deter various actors from pursuing.

References

  1. Abella, M. (2017, August 2–3). The High Cost of Migrating for Work to the Gulf. Draft Paper Presented at Workshop 11, Migration Policies in the Gulf: Continuity and Change, Gulf Research Meeting, Gulf Research Center, Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  2. Abella, M., Martin, P., & Yi, S. (2016 draft). Why Are Migration Costs High for Low-Skilled Workers? Evidence from Migrant Surveys. World Bank KNOMAD Program.Google Scholar
  3. Alsheikh, H. (2015). Current Progress in the Nationalisation Programmes in Saudi Arabia. Gulf Labour Markets and Migration, GLMM No. 2/2015. http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/34580/GLMM_ExpNote_02_2015.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 24 May 2017.
  4. Andrees, B., Nasri, A., & Swiniarski, P. (2015). Regulating Labour Recruitment to Prevent Human Trafficking and to Foster Fair Migration: Models, Challenges and Opportunities. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization.Google Scholar
  5. Asian Development Bank Institute. (2016). Labor Migration in Asia: Building Effective Institutions. Tokyo, Japan/Bangkok, UK: Asian Development Bank Institute, International Labour Organization and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
  6. Atmavilas, Y. (2009, May). Towards a Holistic Internationals Migration Policy: Recommendations from Civil Society. New Delhi, India: Center for Education and Communication (CEC) and Migrant Forum in Asia (MFA) India.Google Scholar
  7. Azid, T. (2005). The Concept and Nature of Labor in Islam: A Survey. Review of Islamic Economics, 9(2), 93–124.Google Scholar
  8. Babar, Z. (2013, May 14–15). A Regional Perspective: Migration Policy and Governance in the GCC. In Labour Mobility – Enabler for Sustainable Development. Abu Dhabi, UAE: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research.Google Scholar
  9. Babar, Z. (2015). Introduction: Arab Migrant Communities in the GCC. In Arab Migrant Communities in the GCC Working Group Summary Report No 12 (pp. 1–5). Doha, Qatar: Center for International and Regional Studies Georgetown University School of Foreign Service.Google Scholar
  10. Babar, Z. (2017). Introduction. In Z. Babar (Ed.), Arab Migrant Communities in the GCC (pp. 1–18). London: Hurst & Co..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Betts, A. (2012). Introduction: Global Migration Governance. In A. Betts (Ed.), Global Migration Governance (pp. 1–33). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. (2015). 2105 Investment Climate Statement – Kuwait (U.S. Department of State, May 2015 Report). https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2015/241622.htm. Accessed 16 Sept 2017.
  13. Caplan, B., & Naik, V. (2015). A Radical Case for Open Borders. In P. Benjamin (ed.), The Economics of Immigration: Market Based Approaches, Social Science, and Public Policy. Chapter 8. Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2015. PDF: http://econfaculty.gmu.edu/bcaplan/caplannaik.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2017.
  14. Carens, J. (2007). The Ethics of Immigration. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Castles, S., & Miller, M. (1998). The Age of Migration. London: Macmillan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cholewinski, R., Macdonald, E., & Perruchoud, R. (Eds.). (2007). International Migration Law. The Hague. The Netherlands: Asser Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cohen, R. (1995). Asian Migrant Contract Workers in the Middle East. In R. Cohen (Ed.), The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crepeau, F. (2014, April 24). Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants: Mission to Qatar. United Nations Human Rights Council, Twenty-sixth Session, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  19. De Bel-Air, F. (2013). Demography, Migration and Labour Market in Saudi Arabia. Gulf Labour Markets and Migration, GLMM No. 1/2014. http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/32151/GLMM%20ExpNote_01-2014.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  20. De Bel-Air, F. (2015). Demography, Migration, and the Labour Market in Bahrain. Gulf Labour Markets and Migration, GLMM No. 6/2015. http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/35882/GLMM_ExpNote_06_2015.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 23 Sept 2016.
  21. Dito, M. (2014). Kafala: Foundations of Migrant Exclusion in GCC Labour Markets. In O. AlShebabi, A. Hanieh, & A. Khalaf (Eds.), Transit States: Labour Migration and Citizenship in the Gulf. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gamlen, A., & Marsh, K. (2011). Modes of Governing Global Migration. In A. Gamlin & K. Marsh (Eds.), Migration and Global Governance (pp. ix–xii). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  23. Girgis, M. (2002). Would Nationals and Asians Replace Arab Workers in the GCC? Paper Presented at the Fourth Mediterranean Development Forum, Amman, Jordan. http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/mdf/mdf4/papers/girgis.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2006.
  24. GLMM. (2015). Estimates of Foreign Arab Nationals in the GCC by Country of Residence. Gulf Labour Markets and Migration, European University Institute. http://gulfmigration.eu/gcc-estimates-of-the-figures-of-foreign-nationals-arab-nationalities-by-country-of-residence-in-the-gcc-2010-2014/. Accessed 3 Feb 2017.
  25. Guild, E., Grant, S., & Groenendijk, K. (2017). IOM and the UN: Unfinished Business (Legal Studies Research Paper No. 255). Queen Mary University of London. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2927414. Accessed 5 Apr 2017.
  26. Harroff-Tavel, H., & Nasri, A. (2013). Tricked and Trapped: Human Trafficking in the Middle East. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization.Google Scholar
  27. Hervé, P., & Arslan, C. (2016). Trends in Labor Migration in Asia. In Labor Migration in Asia: Building Effective Institutions (pp. 1–17). Bangkok, UK: Asian Development Bank Institute, International Labour Organization, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
  28. Human Rights Watch. (2013, June 20). Interfere, Restrict, Control: Restraints of Freedom of Association in Bahrain. Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/report/2013/06/20/interfere-restrict-control/restraints-freedom-association-bahrain. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  29. Human Rights Watch. (2015, November 15). Saudi Arabia: Steps Toward Migrant Workers’ Rights. Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/11/15/saudi-arabia-steps-toward-migrant-workers-rights. Accessed 15 Aug 2017).
  30. Human Rights Watch. (2017, August 14). Why Saudi Arabia Must Halt the Deportation of Half a Million Ethiopians. Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/08/24/why-saudi-arabia-must-halt-deportation-half-million-ethiopians. Accessed 16 Sept 2017.
  31. Institute for Human Rights and Business (IHRB). (2017, June 19–20). Annual Leadership Forum for Responsible Recruitment. Berlin, Germany. https://www.ihrb.org/employerpays/annual-leadership-forum. Accessed 11 Sept 2017.
  32. International Labour Office. (2016, March 10–24). Complaint Concerning Non-Observance by Qatar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29), and the Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81), Made by Delegates to the 103rd Session (2014) of the International Labour Conference Under Article 26 of the ILO Constitution. Governing Body, 326th Session, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  33. International Labour Office. (2017, March 9–24). Complaint Concerning Non-Observance by Qatar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29), and the Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81), Made by Delegates to the 103rd Session (2014) of the International Labour Conference Under Article 26 of the ILO Constitution. Governing Body, 329th Session, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  34. International Labour Organization (ILO). (2015). Issue Paper: Fair Recruitment for International Labour Migration Between Asia and the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries. Bangkok, UK: ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific; ILO Regional Office for Arab States.Google Scholar
  35. International Labour Organization (ILO). (2017a, March 9–24). Complaint Concerning Non-observance by Qatar of the Forced Labour Convention. International Labour Office Governing Body, 329th Session, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  36. International Labour Organization (ILO). (2017b). Employer-Migrant Worker Relationships in the Middle East: Exploring Scope for Internal Labour Market Mobility and Fair Migration (White Paper). Beirut, Lebanon: International Labour Organization, Regional Office for Arab States. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro- beirut/documents/publication/wcms_552697.pdf. Accessed 9 May 2017.
  37. International Organization for Migration (IOM). (2016). IOM DG Briefs Gulf Cooperation Council. https://www.iom.int/news/iom-dg-briefs-gulf-cooperation-council. Accessed 13 Aug 2017.
  38. Johnston, D. (2015, January). Islam and Human Rights: A Growing Rapprochement? American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 74(1), 113–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jones, K. (2015). Recruitment Monitoring & Migrant Welfare Assistance. Dhaka, Bangladesh: International Organization for Migration, Dhaka House.Google Scholar
  40. Jureidini, R. (2005). Middle East Guestworkers. In M. Gibney & R. Hansen (Eds.), Immigration and Asylum: From 1900 to the Present. Oxford, UK: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  41. Jureidini, R. (2016a). Ways Forward in Recruitment of ‘Low-skilled’ Migrant Workers in Asia-Arab States Corridor. Beirut, Lebanon: International Labor Organization White Paper, International Labor Organization Regional Office for Arab States.Google Scholar
  42. Jureidini, R. (2016b). Islamic Ethics and Migrant Labor in Qatar. In T. Azid & N. Kızılkaya (Eds.), Labour in an Islamic Setting: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Jureidini, R. (2017a, August 2–3). Wage Protection Policies and Programs in Various Gulf Countries. Draft Paper Presented at Workshop 11, Migration Policies in the Gulf: Continuity and Change, Gulf Research Meeting, Gulf Research Center, Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  44. Jureidini, R. (2017b, September 28–29). Transnational Culture of Corruption in GCC Migrant Labour Recruitment. Paper presented to the Migration Leaders Syndicate, International Organization of Migration, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  45. Jureidini, R. (2017c). The Need for Systemic Reform in Migrant Labour Recruitment. In S. Irudaya Rajan (Ed.), India Migration Report 2016: Gulf Migration. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Kalanges, K. (2012). Religious Liberty in Western and Islamic Law: Toward a World Legal Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kapiszewski, A. (2001). Nationals and Expatriates: Population and Labour Dilemmas of the Gulf Cooperation Council States. Reading UK: Garnet Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  48. Khan, N. (2016, February 18). Women’s Rights in Islam and Reservations to Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Courting the Law. http://courtingthelaw.com/2016/02/18/commentary/womens-rights-in-islam-and-reservations-to-convention-on-the-elimination-of-all-forms-of-discrimination-against-women/. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  49. Kovessy, P. (2015, March 25). Vinci Faces Legal Complaint Over Migrant Workers’ Treatment in Qatar. Doha News. https://dohanews.co/vinci-faces-legal-complaint-over-migrant-workers-treatment-in-qatar/. Accessed 12 Apr 2015.
  50. Longva, A. (1997). Walls Built on Sand: Migration, Exclusion, and Society in Kuwait. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  51. Malit, F., & Al Youha, A. (2014, April 9). Global Civil Society in Qatar and the Gulf Cooperation Council: Emerging Dilemmas and Opportunities. Migration Information Source. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/global-civil-society-qatar-and-gulf-cooperation-council-emerging-dilemmas-and-opportunities. Accessed 13 Feb 2016.
  52. Martin, P. (2016, May 11–12). Bilateral and Multilateral Government Collaboration to Ensure Lawful, Fair, and Transparent Labor Recruitment Practices. Background Paper on Labour Recruitment, Prepared for the Senior Officials’ Meeting convened by the Abu Dhabi Dialogue, Dubai, UAE.Google Scholar
  53. Martin, P. (2017). Merchants of Labor: Recruiters and International Labor Migration. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Mayer, A. E. (1998). Islamic Reservations to Human Rights Conventions: A Critical Assessment. Recht van de Islam, 15(1998), 25–45.Google Scholar
  55. McAdam, J. (2017, April 7). The 2018 Global Compacts on Refugees and Migrants Factsheet (Andrew & Renata Kaldor Center for International Refugee Law). Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales.Google Scholar
  56. Migrant-Rights.org. (2017). Migration in the Gulf: 2016 in Review. https://www.migrant-rights.org/2017/01/migration-in-the-gulf-2016-in-review/. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  57. Qatar Supreme Committee. (2014, December 16). SC Issues Semi-Annual Workers’ Welfare Compliance Report. Qatar Supreme Committee for Deliver and Legacy. http://www.sc.qa/en/news/sc-first-semi-annual-workers-welfare-compliance-report. Accessed 25 June 2015.
  58. Rajan, I. (Ed.). (2017). India Migration Report 2016: Gulf Migration. New Delhi, India: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Randeree, K. (2012). Workforce Nationalization in the Gulf Cooperation Council States (CIRS Occasional Paper, pp. 8–20). Doha, Qatar: Center for International and Regional Studies – Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar.Google Scholar
  60. Shah, N. (1994). Arab Labour Migration: A Review of Trends and Issues. International Migration Quarterly Review, XXXII(1), 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shah, N. (2009). The Management of Irregular Migration and Its Consequence for Development: Gulf Cooperation Council (ILO Asian Regional Programme on Governance of Labour Migration Working Paper No.19).Google Scholar
  62. Shah, N., & Fargues, P. (2011). Introduction. Special Issue on Migration in the Gulf States: Issues and Prospects. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 20, 3–4.Google Scholar
  63. Syed, J. (2010). Principles of Employment Relations in Islam: A Normative View. Employee Relations, 32(5), 454–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. The Economist. (2017, July 13). If Borders Were Open: A World of Free Movement Would Be $78 Trillion Richer. https://www.economist.com/news/world-if/21724907-yes-it-would-be-disruptive-potential-gains-are-so-vast-objectors-could-be-bribed. Accessed 16 July 2017.
  65. United Nations General Assembly. (1990, December 18). International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. Geneva: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.Google Scholar
  66. Van de Glind, H. (2014). Labour Migration in the Arab States. Beirut. Lebanon: International Labour Organization. http://www.ilo.org/beirut/areasofwork/labourmigration/WCMS_514910/lang–en/index.htm. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
  67. Verité International. (2016). An Exploratory Study on the Role of Corruption in International Migration. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Verite-Report-Intl-Labour-Recruitment.pdf
  68. Wickramasekara, P. (2015). Bilateral Agreements and Memoranda of Understanding on Migration of Low Skilled Workers: A Review. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization, International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  69. Yalcin, S. (2015, June 24–26). Migrant Labour in the Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council – A “fix” for Gulf Capitalism? Paper Prepared for the BRISMES Annual Conference 2015: Liberation Middle East Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ray Jureidini
    • 1
  1. 1.Hamad Bin Khalifa UniversityDohaQatar

Personalised recommendations