To Know or Not to Know

  • Rick Hughes
  • Andrew Kinder
  • Cary L. Cooper


On 12 February 2002, in response to a question in a news briefing, the United States Secretary of Defence, Donald Rumsfeld, provided us with a cracking explanation of ‘knowing’;

There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we know we don’t know. But there are also unknown unknowns. There are things we don’t know we don’t know

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rick Hughes
    • 1
  • Andrew Kinder
    • 2
  • Cary L. Cooper
    • 3
  1. 1.AberdeenUK
  2. 2.LondonUK
  3. 3.Manchester Business SchoolUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations