• Adis Duderija
  • Halim Rane
Part of the New Directions in Islam book series (NDI)


This chapter examines the various scholarly perspectives concerning definitions, manifestations, extent, causes, and critiques of Islamophobia in the West. Since the turn of the century, Islamophobia has been widely discussed in regards to Muslims in the West and has attracted considerable concern from governments in the Muslim World and the West as well as transnational organisations. The concept has attracted a large amount of academic research, particularly in respect to the manifestations and impacts of Islamophobia. It has also attracted criticism from those who claim that the use of the term inhibits legitimate criticism of “Islam”. The chapter argues that what tends to be classified as Islamophobia includes prejudice and discrimination of Muslims but also that the underlying fear and concern is generally not the religion per se but political Islam that developed in the mid-twentieth century in the broader Muslim world and began to make its mark on Muslim communities in the West since the 1980s and 1990s.


  1. Abbas, Tahir. 2004. After 9/11: British South Asian Muslims, Islamophobia, Multiculturalism, and the State. The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 21 (3): 26–38.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, Chris. 2007. The ‘First’ Decade of Islamophobia: 10 Years of the Runnymede Trust Report ‘Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All.’ Retrieved from
  3. ———. 2010. Islamophobia. Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  4. Bayraklı, E., and F. Hafez, eds. 2016. European Islamophobia Report 2015. Ankara: Seta.Google Scholar
  5. Bleich, Erik. 2011. What Is Islamophobia and How Much Is There? Theorizing and Measuring an Emerging Comparative Concept. American Behavioral Scientist 55 (12): 1581–1600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brubaker, Rogers. 2013. Categories of Analysis and Categories of Practice: A Note on the Study of Muslims in European Countries of Immigration. Ethnic and Racial Studies 36 (1): 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cesari, Jocelyne. 2006. Muslims in Western Europe After 9/11: Why the Term Islamophobia Is More a Predicament than an Explanation. Retrieved from
  8. ———. 2011. Islamophobia in the West: A Comparison Between Europe and the United States. In Islamophobia: The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century, ed. John L. Esposito and Ibrahim Kalin, 21–46. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Ciftci, Sabri. 2012. Islamophobia and Threat Perceptions: Explaining Anti-Muslim Sentiment in the West. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 32 (3): 293–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia [CBMI]. 1997. Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All. Retrieved from
  11. Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR). 2017. Civil Rights Report 2017: The Empowerment of Hate. Retrieved from
  12. Dekker, Henk, and Jolanda van der Noll. 2011. Islamophobia and Anti-Semitism and Their Explanations. Retrieved from
  13. Donner, F.M. 2012. Muhammad and the Believers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Dunn, K.M., N. Klocker, and T. Salabay. 2007. Contemporary Racism and Islamophobia in Australia: Racializing Religion. Ethnicities 7 (4): 564–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dunn, Kevin, Rosalie Atie, and Virginia Mapedzahama. 2016. Ordinary Cosmopolitans: Sydney Muslims’ Attitudes to Diversity. Australian Geographer 47 (3): 281–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. El-Fadl, Khaled Abou. 2016. Fatwa on Permissibility of Not Wearing hijab, Scholar of the House, online:
  17. El-Wakil, A. 2016. The Prophet’s Treaty with the Christians of Najran: An Analytical Study to Determine the Authenticity of the Covenants. Journal of Islamic Studies 27 (3): 273–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Essential Report. 2016. Ban on Muslim Immigration, (Essential Research, 21 September 2016), accessed October 1 2016,
  19. Esposito, John L., and Ibrahim Kalin. 2011. Islamophobia: The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC). 2002. Summary Report on Islamophobia in the EU After 11 September 2001. Retrieved from
  21. ———. 2003. The Fight Against Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: Bringing Communities Together. Retrieved from
  22. ———. 2006. Muslims in the European Union: Discrimination and Islamophobia. Retrieved from
  23. Goodwin, M., Raines, T. and Cutts, D. 2017. What do Europeans Think About Muslim Immigration. Chatham House.Google Scholar
  24. Gottschalk, P., and G. Greenberg. 2007. Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  25. Hassan, R., and Martin, B. 2015. Islamophobia, Social Distance and Fear of Terrorism in Australia. Retrieved from
  26. Hodgson, Marshall G.S. 1993. Rethinking World History: Essays on Europe, Islam and World History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Huntington, S.P. 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  28. Husain, Zohair, and David M. Rosenbaum. 2004. Perceiving Islam: The Causes and Consequences of Islamophobia in the Western Media. In Religious Fundamentalism in the Contemporary World: Critical Social and Political Issues, ed. Santosh C. Saha, 171–206. Oxford: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  29. Imhoff, Roland, and Julia Recker. 2012. Differentiating Islamophobia: Introducing a New Scale to Measure Islamoprejudice and Secular Islam Critique. Political Psychology 33 (6): 811–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Iner, D. (ed.) 2017. Islamophobia in Australia 2014–1016. Deakin University
  31. Kumar, Deepa. 2010. Framing Islam: The Resurgence of Orientalism During the Bush II era. Journal of Communication Inquiry 34 (3): 254–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee, Sherman A., Jeffrey A. Gibbons, John M. Thompson, and Hussam S. Timani. 2009. The Islamophobia Scale: Instrument Development and Initial Validation. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 19 (2): 92–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lewis, B. 1990. The Roots of Muslim Rage. The Atlantic Monthly 266 (3): 47–60.Google Scholar
  34. Malik, Kenan. 2005a. The Islamophobia Myth. Prospect, February 20. Retrieved from
  35. ———. 2005b. What Hate? The Guardian, January 7. Retrieved from
  36. ———. 2009. From Fatwa to Jihad: The Rushdie Affair and Its Legacy. London: Atlantic.Google Scholar
  37. Mahood, Samantha, and Halim Rane. 2017. Islamist Narratives in ISIS Recruitment Propaganda. The Journal of International Communication 23 (1): 15–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Manning, P.C. 2006. Us and Them: A Journalist’s Investigation of Media, Muslims and the Middle East. London: Random House.Google Scholar
  39. Mason, Victoria, and Scott Poynting. 2007. The Resistible Rise of Islamophobia: Anti-Muslim Racism in the UK and Australia Before 11September 2001. Journal of Sociology 43 (1): 61–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maussen, Marcel. 2006. Anti-Muslim Sentiments and Mobilization in the Netherlands: Discourse, Policies and Violence. In Muslims in Western Europe After 9/11: Why the Term Islamophobia Is More a Predicament than an Explanation, ed. Jocelyne Cesari, 100–138. Retrieved from
  41. Meer, Nasar. 2013. Racialization and Religion: Race: Culture and Difference in the Study of Antisemitism and Islamophobia. Ethnic and Racial Studies 36 (3): 385–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. ———. 2014. Islamophobia and Postcolonialism: Continuity, Orientalism and Muslim Consciousness. Patterns of Prejudice 48 (5): 500–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Meer, Nasar, and Tariq Modood. 2009. Refutations of racism in the ‘Muslim question’. Patterns of Prejudice 43 (3–4): 335–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Miller, Charles. 2017. Australia’s Anti-Islam Right in Their Own Words: Text as Data Analysis of Social Media Content. Australian Journal of Political Science 52 (3): 383–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Morrow, J. A. 2013. The Covenants of the Prophet Muhammad with the Christians of the World. Sophia Perennis.Google Scholar
  46. Morey, Peter, and Amina Yaqin. 2011. Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation After 9/11. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mozaffari, M. 2007. What is Islamism? History and Definition of a Concept. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 8 (1): 17–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nacos, Brigitte L., and Oscar Torres-Reyna. 2007. Fueling Our Fears: Stereotyping, Media Coverage, and Public Opinion of Muslim Americans. Lanham: Rowan & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  49. Norris, Pippa, Montague Kern, and Marion R. Just, eds. 2003. Framing Terrorism: The News Media, the Government, and the Public. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Organisation of Islamic Cooperation [OIC]. 2008. First OIC Observatory Report on Islamophobia: May 2007 to May 2008. Retrieved from
  51. ———. 2012. Fifth OIC Observatory Report on Islamophobia: May 2011 to September 2012. Retrieved from
  52. ———. 2017. Tenth OIC Observatory Report on Islamophobia: October 2016 to May 2017.Google Scholar
  53. Papacharissi, Zizi, and Maria de Fatima Oliveira. 2008. News Frames Terrorism: A Comparative Analysis of Frames Employed in Terrorism Coverage in US and UK Newspapers. The International Journal of Press/Politics 13 (1): 52–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pew Research Center. 2016. Negative Views of Minorities, Refugees Common in EU. Retrieved from
  55. Poole, Elizabeth. 2002. Reporting Islam: Media Representations and British Muslims. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  56. Powell, Kimberly A. 2011. Framing Islam: An Analysis of U.S. Media Coverage of Terrorism Since 9/11. Communication Studies 62 (1): 90–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rana, Junaid. 2007. The Story of Islamophobia. A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society 9 (2): 148–161.Google Scholar
  58. Rane, H., J. Ewart, and J. Martinkus. 2014. Media Framing of the Muslim World: Conflicts, Crises and Contexts. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rane, Halim. 2010. Media Content and Intercommunity Relations. In Islam and the Australian News Media, ed. H. Rane, J. Ewart, and M. Abdalla, 104–122. Carlton: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Richardson, Robin. 2013. Islamophobia or Anti-Muslim Racism – Or What? Concepts and Terms Revisited. Retrieved from
  61. Ryan, Michael. 2004. Framing the War Against Terrorism: US Newspaper Editorials and Military Action in Afghanistan. Gazette: The International Journal for Communication Studies 66 (5): 363–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Said, Edward W. 1978. Orientalism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 1981. Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  64. Sajid, Abdullah. 2005. Islamophobia: A New Word for an Old Fear. Retrieved from
  65. Salvatore, Armando. 2010. Repositioning ‘Islamdom’: The Culture—Power Syndrome within a Transcivilizational Ecumene. European Journal of Social Theory 13 (1): 99–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. ———. 2014. A Measure of Islamophobia. Islamophobia Studies Journal 2 (1): 10–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Semati, Mehdi. 2010. Islamophobia, Culture and Race in the Age of Empire. Cultural Studies 24 (2): 256–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Steuter, Erin, and Deborah Wills. 2009. Discourses of Dehumanization: Enemy Construction and Canadian Media Complicity in the Framing of the War on Terror. Global Media Journal 2 (2): 7–24.Google Scholar
  69. Stolz, J. 2005. Explaining Islamophobia. A Test of Four Theories Based on the Case of a Swiss City. Swiss Journal of Sociology 31 (3): 547–566.Google Scholar
  70. Tibi, Bassam. 2012. Islam and Islamism. New Haven/London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Tolan, J.V. 2002. Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  72. United National Human Rights Council (UNHRC). 2007. A/HRC/6/6: Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia AND Related Forms of Intolerance: Follow-up to and Implementation of the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action. Retrieved from
  73. Zúquete, Jose Pedro. 2008. The European Extreme-Right and Islam: New Directions? Journal of Political Ideologies 13 (3): 321–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adis Duderija
    • 1
  • Halim Rane
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Humanities, Languages and Social ScienceGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia

Personalised recommendations