Regeneration in Stellate Echinoderms: Crinoidea, Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea

  • Yousra Ben Khadra
  • Michela SugniEmail author
  • Cinzia Ferrario
  • Francesco Bonasoro
  • Paola Oliveri
  • Pedro Martinez
  • Maria Daniela Candia Carnevali
Part of the Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation book series (RESULTS, volume 65)


Reparative regeneration is defined as the replacement of lost adult body parts and is a phenomenon widespread yet highly variable among animals. This raises the question of which key cellular and molecular mechanisms have to be implemented in order to efficiently and correctly replace entire body parts in any animal. To address this question, different studies using an integrated cellular and functional genomic approach to study regeneration in stellate echinoderms (crinoids, asteroids and ophiuroids) had been carried out over the last few years. The phylum Echinodermata is recognized for the striking regeneration potential shown by the members of its different clades. Indeed, stellate echinoderms are considered among the most useful and tractable experimental models for carrying comprehensive studies focused on ecological, developmental and evolutionary aspects. Moreover, most of them are tractable in the laboratory and, thus, should allow us to understand the underlying mechanisms, cellular and molecular, which are involved. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the cellular/histological components of the regenerative process in crinoids, asteroids and ophiuroids is described and compared. However, though this knowledge provided us with some clear insights into the global distribution of cell types at different times, it did not explain us how the recruited cells are specified (and from which precursors) over time and where are they located in the animal. The precise answer to these queries needs the incorporation of molecular approaches, both descriptive and functional. Yet, the molecular studies in stellate echinoderms are still limited to characterization of some gene families and protein factors involved in arm regeneration but, at present, have not shed light on most of the basic mechanisms. In this context, further studies are needed specifically to understand the role of regulatory factors and their spatio-temporal deployment in the growing arms. A focus on developing functional tools over the next few years should be of fundamental importance.


Crinoids Ophiuroids Candia Carnevali Coelomocytes Echinoderm Regeneration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yousra Ben Khadra
    • 1
  • Michela Sugni
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Cinzia Ferrario
    • 2
    • 3
  • Francesco Bonasoro
    • 2
  • Paola Oliveri
    • 4
  • Pedro Martinez
    • 5
    • 6
  • Maria Daniela Candia Carnevali
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Recherche, Génétique, Biodiversité et Valorisation des Bioressources, Institut Supérieur de Biotechnologie de MonastirUniversité de MonastirMonastirTunisia
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze e Politiche AmbientaliUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanoItaly
  3. 3.Center for Complexity & Biosystems, Dipartimento di FisicaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanoItaly
  4. 4.Department of Genetics, Evolution and EnvironmentUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  5. 5.Departament de Genètica, Microbiologia I EstadísticaUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.ICREA (Institut Català de Recerca i Estudis Avancats)BarcelonaSpain

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