The origins of extreme biomineralization are found in the first ancestral unicellular organisms that evolved under the harsh environmental conditions of ancient oceans. Such conditions also allowed adaptation of unique extremophilic and polyextremophilic biomineralizers, which are still found today Psychrophilic, thermophilic, anaerobic, alkaliphilic, acidophilic, and halophilic conditions, as well as forced biomineralization arising in environments with very high or toxic metal ion concentrations are considered. In most cases the mechanisms of these special biomineralogical phenomena remain unknown. Nevertheless, extreme biomineralization provides crucial information for progression in extreme biomimetics. This exciting area of modern research could be the next step in creating the next generation of composites using organic-templating materials of marine invertebrates origin under biologically extreme laboratory conditions.
- Ehrlich H (ed) (2017) Extreme biomimetics. Springer, BaselGoogle Scholar
- Moussout H, Ahla H, Aazza M, Bourakhouadar M (2016) Kinetics and mechanism of the thermal degradation of biopolymers chitin and chitosan using thermogravimetric analysis. 130:1–9Google Scholar
- Szatkowski T, Siwińska–Stefańska K, Wysokowski M, Stelling AL, Joseph Y, Ehrlich H, Jesionowski T (2017) Immobilization of titanium(IV) oxide onto 3D spongin scaffolds of marine sponge origin according to extreme biomimetics principles for removal of C.I. Basic Blue 9. Biomimetics 2(2017):4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Szatkowski T, Kopczyński K, Motylenko M, Borrmann H et al (2018) Extreme biomimetics: carbonized 3D spongin scaffold as a novel support for nanostructured manganese oxide (IV) and its electrochemical applications. Nano Res 11(8):4199–4214. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-018-2008-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wysokowski M, Behm T, Born R, Bazhenov VV, Meissner H, Richter G, Szwarc-Rzepka K, Makarova A, Vyalikh D, Schupp P, Jesionowski T, Ehrlich H (2013a) Preparation of chitin-silica composites by in vitro silicification of two-dimensional Ianthella basta demosponge chitinous scaffolds under modified Stöber conditions. Mater Sci Eng C 33(7):3935–3941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wysokowski M, Petrenko I, Motylenko M, Langer E et al (2015b) Renewable chitin from marine sponge as a thermostable biological template for hydrothermal synthesis of hematite nanospheres using principles of extreme biomimetics. Bioinspired Mater 1:12–22Google Scholar