Chapter 2 describes the principles, benefits, and drawbacks of invasive ventilation in children post-heart surgery. Descriptions are provided of the basic concepts of various ventilators and forms of ventilation, alongside ventilator settings and the effects of positive pressure ventilation on hemodynamics in various pathophysiologic conditions manifesting in pediatric cardiology. Besides conveying a fundamental understanding of ventilation parameters and basic settings in various postoperative conditions, forms of synchronized ventilation and the interpretation of curves and loops on the ventilator are addressed. The chapter ends with a description of the “open lung” concept based on the Maquet Open Lung Tool while outlining the limits of ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
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